How to “See” Electrons

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


If we are studying the structure of a material, when all is said and done, all we have to show for our expensive electron microscope, hours of specimen preparation, and careful alignment, etc., is an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum. These images and diffraction patterns, which are just different distributions of electron intensity, have first to be viewed in some manner. After viewing, we have to decide if we want to save the result for future reference, perhaps so we can print it for a technical report or scientific publication. Since, as we noted in the opening chapter, our eyes are not sensitive to electrons, we have to find ways to translate the electron intensity distributions into visible-light distributions. This chapter will explain how we “see” electrons.


Photographic Emulsion Semiconductor Detector Silver Halide Instant Film Fluorescent Screen 
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General References

  1. Chapman, J.N., Craven, A.J., and Scott, C.P. (1989) Ultramicroscopy 28, 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Knoll, G.F. (1989) Radiation Detection and Measurement, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Nicholson, W.A.P. (1981) J. Microsc. 121, 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Reimer, L. (1985) Scanning Electron Microscopy, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Yang, E.S. (1978) Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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