Advertisement

Using Convergent-Beam Techniques

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter

Abstract

In the preceding chapter we described how to obtain a variety of CBED patterns under various experimental conditions, but always with a focused beam. In this chapter you will find out why these patterns are so useful: they contain a wealth of quantitative data. First, we’ll show how to measure the specimen thickness. Next, we’ll describe the steps for a complete crystallographic analysis of your specimen including determination of its unit cell, crystal system, point group, and space group. Then, we’ll introduce you to methods of determining extremely small changes in lattice parameter which can be used to measure lattice strain and, indirectly, composition. Other convergent-beam techniques are also available, some of which use a somewhat defocused beam, as well as different microdiffraction methods which we will briefly summarize at the end of the chapter.

Keywords

Point Group Mirror Plane Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction Thickness Determination Laue Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

General References

  1. Eades, J.A. (1988) Ultramicroscopy 24, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Eades, J.A., Ed. (1989) J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 13 ( I and II ). Special issues on CBED.Google Scholar
  3. Loretto, M.H. (1994) Electron Beam Analysis of Materials, 2nd edition, Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Mansfield, J.F. (1984), Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction of Alloy Phases, Adam Hilger, Bristol, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  5. Spence, J.C.H. and Zuo, J.M. (1992) Electron Microdiffraction, Plenum Press, New York. You will want a copy of this if you use CBED extensively. The code for plotting HOLZ lines is included in the appendices along with the Fortran code for two programs, one Bloch wave and one multislice. You may also find a reference to earlier CBED studies on your material here in the selective bibliography organized by material.Google Scholar
  6. Sung, C.M. and Williams, D.B. (1991) J. Elect. Microsc. Tech. 17, 95. A bibliography of CBED papers from 1939–1990.Google Scholar
  7. Tanaka, M. and Terauchi, M. (1985) Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction, JEOL, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  8. Tanaka, M., Terauchi, M., and Kaneyama, T. (1988) Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction, II, JEOL, Tokyo.Google Scholar

Specific References

  1. Allen, S.M. (1981) Phil. Mag. A43, 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayer, R. (1989) J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 13, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buxton, B.F., Eades, J.A., Steeds, J.W., and Rackham, G.M. (1976) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 281, 181.Google Scholar
  4. Cowley, J.M. (1981) Ultramicroscopy 7, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eades, J.A., Moore, S., Pfullman, T., and Hangas, J. (1993) Microscopy Research and Technique 24, 509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gjonnes, J. and Moodie, A.F. (1965) Acta Cryst. 19, 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hahn, T., Ed. (1988) International Tables for Crystallography, A. Space-group Symmetry, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Norwell, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  8. Hirsch, P.B., Howie, A., Nicholson, R.B., Pashley, D.W., and Whelan, M.J. (1977) Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals, 2nd edition, p. 122, Krieger, Huntington, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Humphreys, C.J., Maher, D.M., Fraser, H.L., and Eaglesham, D.J. (1988) Phil. Mag. 58A, 787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jackson, A.G. (1987) J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 5, 373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jackson, A.G. (1990) Ultramicroscopy 32, 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kelly, P.M., Jostons, A., Blake, R.G., and Napier, J.G. (1975) Phys. stat. sol. A31, 771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Raghavan, M., Scanlon, J.C., and Steeds, J.W. (1984) Met. Trans. 15A, 1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Randle, V., Barker, I., and Ralph, B. (1989) J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 13, 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Riecke, W.D. (1962) Proc. 5th Int. Cong. on Electron Microscopy, 1 (Ed. S.S. Breese Jr.), p. KK-5, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Steeds, J.W. (1979) Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy (Eds. J.J. Hren, J.I. Goldstein, and D.C. Joy), p. 387, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Steeds, J.W. (1984) “Electron Crystallography,” in Quantitative Electron Microscopy, (Eds. J.N. Chapman and A.J. Craven ), p. 49, Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  18. Steeds, J.W. and Vincent, R. (1983) J. Appl. Cryst. 16, 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tanaka, M. (1989) J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 13, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations