The concept of a group was introduced into mathematics by Cayley in the 1860s, generalising the older notion of “substitutions”. The theory of substitutions studied the symmetries of algebraic equations generated by permutations of their roots. The theory was already highly developed; in particular Galois had developed a method to determine whether an algebraic equation can be solved by radicals. Although the work was done before 1832, it was not until 1843 that it gained a wide audience when it was popularised by Liouville.


Group Element Identity Element Rigid Body Motion Orthogonal Group Orthogonal Matrice 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Selig
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical, Electronic, and Information EngineeringSouth Bank UniversityLondonUK

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