Plane Answers to Complex Questions pp 16-44 | Cite as

# Estimation

Chapter

## Abstract

In this chapter, properties of least squares estimates are examined for the model The chapter begins with a discussion of the concept of estimability in linear models. Section 2 characterizes least squares estimates. Sections 3, 4, and 5 establish that least squares estimates are best linear unbiased estimates, maximum likelihood estimates, and minimum variance unbiased estimates. The last two of these properties require the additional assumption where

$$\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
{Y = X\beta + e,}&{E(e) = 0,}&{Cov(e)}
\end{array} = {\sigma ^2}I$$

*e*~*N*(0,*σ*^{2}*I*)Section 6 also assumes that the errors are normally distributed and presents the distributions of various estimates. From these distributions various tests and confidence intervals are easily obtained. Section 7 examines the model$$\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
{Y = X\beta + e,}&{E(e) = 0,}&{Cov(e)}
\end{array} = {\sigma ^2}V$$

*V*is a known positive definite matrix. Section 7 introduces weighted least squares estimates and presents properties of those estimates. Section 8 presents the normal equations and establishes their relationship to least squares and weighted least squares estimation. Section 9 discusses Bayesian estimation.## Keywords

Mean Square Error Bayesian Analysis Unbiased Estimate Normal Equation Prediction Interval## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996