Low-Phase-Noise Gigahertz Voltage-Controlled Oscillators in CMOS
A design strategy for the realization of low-phase-noise VCOs is presented. The possible realizations of integrated inductors are discussed, with emphasis on bondwire inductors. A general formula for the phase noise in LC-tuned oscillators is derived, based on the concepts of effective resistance and capacitance. A trade-off between noise and power is possible with the newly developed enhanced LC-tanks. An oscillator based on these principles was implemented in a 0.7-μm CMOS technology. Measured phase noise is-85 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz from the 1.8-GHz carrier.
KeywordsPhase Noise Series Resistance Noise Source Active Inductor Parasitic Resistance
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