Monolithic Voltage and Current References: Theme and Variations
The Theme is that of the ‘bandgap voltage reference principle’, The Variations are some unusual and hitherto unpublished derivatives of the form. Most are of moderate to high accuracy, and generally intended for operation in a low-voltage commercial context, which typically means a minimum supply of 2.7V and a minimum temperature of-30°C. In some cases, the supply may be as low as 1.2V and operation may be required at temperatures of-55°C, though rarely in combination. A few are very simple, and useful where accuracy is needed only over a narrow supply range. The emphasis throughout is on allbipolar, and in many cases, all-NPN, realizations, while acknowledging that complementary bipolar and BiCMOS processes often provide implementation advantages. Brief mention will be made of the special challenges of realizing voltage References in an all-CMOS process; a dynamic reference, interesting and valuable because it requires only a single junction device, is described.
KeywordsSupply Voltage Bias Current Voltage Reference Emitter Area Junction Resistance
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