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Abstract

Probabilistic arguments can often be reduced to techniques where one enumerates all possibilities. These techniques are based on the Law of Total Probability and are most useful when there is a set of equally probable basic events and when events of interest consist of combinations of these basic events. In this chapter we focus on such enumerative techniques and derive formal counting techniques collectively called combinatorics. We define four different counting paradigms in Section 3.2,which are expressed in terms of selecting distinguishable balls from an urn or, equivalently, in terms of allocating indistinguishable balls to different urns. To derive expressions for the number of different possibilities for each counting paradigm, we establish recurrence relationships between the number of possibilities in the initial problem to that of a similar, but smaller, problem. This type of argument corresponds to partitioning the counting space into disjoint sets, which are smaller and easier to count.

Keywords

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Bibliographic Notes

  1. [18]
    D. I. A. Cohen. Basic Techniques of Combinatorial Theory. John Wiley and Sons, 1978.Google Scholar
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    G. M. Constantine. Combinatorial Theory and Statistical Design. John Wiley and Sons, 1987.Google Scholar
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    R.L. Graham, D.E. Knuth, and O. Patashnik. Concrete Mathematics. Addison-Wesley, 1989.Google Scholar
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    J. Riordan. An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis. Princeton University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
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    N. Y. Vilenkin. Combinatorics. Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  6. D.I.A. Cohen. Basic Techniques of Combinatorial Theory. John Wiley and Sons, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. G.M. Constantine. Combinatorial Theory and Statistical Design. John Wiley and Sons, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. R.L. Graham, D.E. Knuth, and O. Patashnik. Concrete Mathematics. Addison-Wesley, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. J. Riordan. An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis. Princeton University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. N.Y. Vilenkin. Combinatorics. Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randolph Nelson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.OTA Limited PartnershipPurchaseUSA
  2. 2.Modeling MethodologyIBM T.J. Watson Research CenterYorktown HeightsUSA

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