Three-Dimensional Characterization of Active Surfactant
Active surfactant are known to have dynamic characteristics when surface tension is determined as a function of interface development time. Higher surface tensions result as interface development times are reduced. This allows the characterization of a fluid in two dimensions, surface tension versus interface development time, which includes both the static (or equilibrium) and dynamic zones. When a fluid’s surface tension is further measured as a function of surfactant concentration, then the action of the surfactant can be characterized in three dimensions: concentration, surface tension, and interface development time. The method presented can be applied readily to active surfactant added to coatings, aqueous solutions, fountain solutions/ink emulsions, and other chemicals or formulations for which surface tension can be measured using the modified maximum bubble pressure method. In the example presented, the SensaDyne® Tensiometer was used with several auxiliary software programs, one for accurate determination of interface development times, and a second program for three-dimensional graphing of the data.
KeywordsSurface Tension High Surface Tension Dynamic Surface Tension ASCII Format Active Surfactant
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