The Solution of the Phase Problem by the Isomorphous Replacement Method
The isomorphous replacement method, which requires the attachment of heavy atoms (atoms with high atomic number) to the protein molecules in the crystal.
The multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction method. It depends on the presence of sufficiently strong anomalously scattering atoms in the protein structure itself. Anomalous scattering occurs if the electrons in an atom cannot be regarded as free electrons.
The molecular replacement method for which the similarity of the unknown structure to an already known structure is a prerequisite.
Direct methods, the methods of the future, still in a stage of development toward practical application for proteins.
KeywordsPhase Angle Heavy Atom Mercury Atom Phase Problem Anomalous Scattering
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