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Approaches to Studying the Interaction between G-Proteins and Voltage- Dependent Ca2+ Channels

  • Walter Rosenthal
  • Christiane Kleuss
  • Jürgen Hescheler
  • Burghardt Wittig
  • Günter Schultz
Chapter

Abstract

A multitude of extracellular signals regulate and coordinate cellular functions within an organism. Only a few extracellular signals, such as steroids and thyroid hormone, can permeate the plasma membrane and bind to intracellular receptors (Evans, 1988). In most instances extracellular signals do not directly target intracellular proteins, but rather interact with a transmembraneous receptor. The interaction triggers the generation of an intracellular signal. This process, frequently referred to as “signal transduction,” is accomplished by two main principles. (1) A limited number of receptors possess an intrinsic signal-generating activity (“effector”). For example, excitatory multimeric receptors such as the nicotinic cholinoceptor and subtypes of the glutamate/ aspartate receptor form “ligand-gated” cation channels (Hohmann et al., 1989; Changeux, 1990). Inhibitory multimeric receptors of excitable cells, i.e., receptors for yaminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, possess a built-in Cl channel which is opened upon binding of the ligand (Schofield et al., 1987; Grenningloh et al., 1987). Other receptors within this category possess an intracellular portion with an enzymatic activity: The insulin receptor and the receptors for growth factors are tyrosine kinases (Yarden and Ullrich, 1988), the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide is a guanylyl cyclase (Schulz et al., 1991), and receptors for as yet unknown ligands are phosphotyrosine phosphatases (Alexander, 1990). (2) The majority of extracellular signals interact with receptors lacking effector activity (O’Dowd et al., 1989; Findlay and Eliopoulos, 1990). Here signal transduction requires reversible interaction of proteins of the plasma membrane: Upon activation by an extracellular signal, the receptor interacts with a coupling component (transducer), which in turn modulates the activity of an effector controlling the concentration of intracellular signal molecules, such as cyclic nucleotides, inositol phosphates, arachidonic acid, or cytosolic Ca2+.

Keywords

Adenylyl Cyclase Bath Solution Cholera Toxin Extracellular Signal Guanine Nucleotide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Rosenthal
    • 1
  • Christiane Kleuss
    • 2
  • Jürgen Hescheler
    • 1
  • Burghardt Wittig
    • 2
  • Günter Schultz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PharmakologieUniversität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Molekularbiologie und Biochemie FreieUniversität BerlinBerlinGermany

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