Design of Low-voltage Bipolar Opamps
This paper describes design techniques for low-voltage bipolar Operational Amplifiers (OpAmps). The common-mode (CM) input voltage of the OpAmp must be able to have any value that fits within the supply voltage range. An input stage capable of realizing this is discussed. The OpAmp should also have a rail-to-rail output voltage range. The multi-path-driven output stage, which is discussed here has a high bandwidth and a high gain. Miller compensation is used to split the pole frequencies of the OpAmp. Finally, two realizations are discussed and a Figure of merit is defined to enable a comparison of the OpAmps’ performances.
KeywordsSupply Voltage Output Stage Input Stage Current Gain Input Pair
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- R.J. Widlar, “Low Voltage Techniques”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-13, December 1978, pp. 838–846.Google Scholar
- J. Fonderie, Design of Low-Voltage Bipolar Operational Amplifiers. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft Univ. Technol., Delft, The Netherlands 1991.Google Scholar
- J. Fonderie, M.M. Maris, E.J. Schnitger, and J.H. Huijsing, “1-V Operational Amplifier with Rail-to-Rail Input and Output Ranges”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-24, December 1989, pp. 1551–1559.Google Scholar
- J.E. Solomon, “The Monolithic Op Amp: A Tutorial Study”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-9, no. 6, December 1974, pp. 314–332.Google Scholar
- J. Fonderie and J.H. Huijsing, “Operational Amplifier with 1-V Railto-Rail Multi-Path-Driven Output Stage”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-26, no. 12, December 1991, pp. 1817–1824.Google Scholar
- J.H. Huijsing and J. Fonderie, “Multi Stage Amplifier with Capacitive Nesting and Multi-Path-Driven Forward Feeding for Frequency Compensation”, U.S. Pat. Appl. Ser. No. 654.855, filed February 11, 1991.Google Scholar
- J.H. Huijsing, J. Fonderie, “Current Compensation Circuit”, Eur. Pat. Appl. Ser. No. 9000351, filed February 14, 1990.Google Scholar
- B.Y. Kamath, R.G. Meyer, and P.R. Gray, “Relationship Between Frequency Response and settling time of Operational Amplifiers”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-9, December 1974, pp. 347–352.Google Scholar
- E. Seevinck, W. de Jager, and P. Buitendijk, “A Low-Distortion Output Stage with Improved Stability for Monolithic Power Amplifiers”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-23, June 1988, pp. 794–801.Google Scholar
- J.H. Huijsing and D. Linebarger, “Low-Voltage Operational Amplifier with Rail-to-Rail Input and Output Ranges”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-20, December 1985, pp. 1144–1150.Google Scholar