What Is the Limit for Prolonged Sleep Reduction? An Objective Evaluation of the Leonardo da Vinci Ultrashort Sleep Strategy
Leonardo da Vinci is a symbol of universal, interdisciplinary wisdom. With his tireless sense of curiosity, Leonardo explored more disciplines than any of his contemporaries. These disciplines included, among others, mathematics, mechanics, ballistics, anatomy, medicine, botany, geology, astronomy, and visual arts. Despite his own prolific writings and the multitude of scholarly works that have since been written about him, however, many aspects of his life remain a mystery. The legends circulated about his inventions and discoveries in all disciplines are numerous, as are postulations concerning his work patterns and life-style (Brion, 1959).
KeywordsTotal Sleep Time Slow Wave Sleep Sleep Pattern Sleep Period Sleep Schedule
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brion M (1959): L’homme unique. In: Leonard da Vinci, Brion M, ed. Paris: Hachette, pp 7–53Google Scholar
- Evans FJ, Orne MT (1976): Recovery from Fatigue, Annu Summ Rep N. 60. Fort Derrick, MD: US Army Med Res Dev CommandGoogle Scholar
- Horne JA (1988): Why We Sleep: The Function of Sleep in Humans and Other Mammals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 1–319Google Scholar
- Kristal MB, Noonan M (1979): Note on sleep in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). S Afr J Zool 14:108Google Scholar
- McMurrich JP (1971): Leonardo da Vinci: The Anatomist. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, pp 66–81Google Scholar
- Stampi C (1985): Ultrashort sleep-wake cycles improve performance during one-man transatlantic races. In: Sleep’ 84, Koella WP, Ruther E, Schulz H, eds. Stuttgart and New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, pp 271–272Google Scholar
- Stampi C, Davis B (1991): Forty-eight days on the “Leonardo da Vinci” strategy for sleep reduction: Performance behaviour with three hours polyphasic sleep per day. Sleep Res 20:471Google Scholar
- Stampi C, Moffitt A, Hoffman R (1990): Leonardo da Vinci’s polyphasic ultrashort sleep: A strategy for sleep reduction? I. Sleep architecture. Sleep Res 19:408Google Scholar
- Stampi C. et al. (1992): Three weeks with 3-hr monophasic sleep per day: A control study to the Leonardo da Vinci schedule. In preparationGoogle Scholar
- Zulley J, Bailer J (1988): Polyphasic sleep/wake patterns and their significance to vigilance. In: Vigilance: Methods, Models, and Regulation, Leonard JP, ed. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Peter Lang for the Commission of the EC, pp 167–180Google Scholar