The genus Streptobacillus is presently represented by one species, Streptobacillus moniliformis, the etiologic agent of rat-bite fever and Haverill fever. S. moniliformis has also been known as Haverhillia multiformis, Actinomyces muris, Actinobacillus muris,and Haverhillia moniliformis. Although the genus Streptobacillus was described in the 1920s, taxonomically it continues to be a genus of uncertain affiliation. Previously this genus was placed in the families Parvobacteriaceae (Tribe Haemophileae) and Bacteroidaceae. Since the 8th edition of Bergy’s Manual, Streptobacillus has been described as a genus of “uncertain affiliation.” It was recently suggested (Savage, 1989) that S. moniliformis is more similar to some of the Mycoplasmatales. This suggestion is based on the low GC content of the DNA (24–26 mol%), serum or blood requirements for growth, cholesterol incorporation into the cell membrane, animal parasitism, and production of L-phase organisms. Further clarification of the taxonomic position of this genus awaits genetic studies, such as DNA-RNA hybridizations.
KeywordsAscitic Fluid Blood Requirement Animal Parasitism Thioglycolate Broth Uncertain Affiliation
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