Advertisement

The Prokaryotes pp 3593-3607 | Cite as

The Genus Bacteroides and Related Taxa

  • Haroun N. Shah

Abstract

Bacteroides fragilis,type species of the genus Bacteroides was first described by Veillon and Zuber (1898) as Bacillus fragilis but was later transferred to the genus Bacteroides by Castellani and Chalmers (1919). B. fragilis has been referred to as Fusiformis fragilis (Topley and Wilson, 1929), Ristella fragilis (Prévot, 1938) and Bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis (Holdeman and Moore, 1974). Studies on more than 300 morphologically and physiologically similar isolates which were saccharolytic and showed growth stimulation with bile revealed phenotypically discernible groups within a “continum of variants” (Holdeman and Moore, 1970). As a result, Bacteroides fragilis was regarded as a single species which comprised the following; B. fragilis subspecies fragilis, B. fragilis subspecies distasonis, B. fragilis subspecies eggerthii, B. fragilis subspecies ovatus, B. fragilis subspecies thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis subspecies uniformis,and B. fragilis subspecies vulgatus (Holdeman and Moore, 1974).

Keywords

Oral Cavity Succinic Acid Isoprene Unit Bacteroides Species Cellular Fatty Acid Composition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Benno, Y., J. Watabe, and T. Mitsuoka. 1983. Bacteroides pyogenes sp. nov., Bacteroides suis sp. nov., and Bacteroides helcogenes sp. nov., a new species from abscess and feces of pigs. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4: 396–407.Google Scholar
  2. Bryant, M. P., and I. M. Robinson. 1962. Some nutritional charactarestics of prodominant culturable ruminai bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 84:605–614Google Scholar
  3. Caldwell, D. R., and M. P. Bryant. 1966. Medium without rumen fluid for nonselective enumeration and isolation of rumen bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 14:794–801Google Scholar
  4. Callihan, D. R., F. E. Young, and V. L. Clark. 1983. Identification of three homology classes of small cryptic plasmids in intestinal Bacteroides species. Plasmid 9: 17–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castellani, A., and A. J. Chalmers. 1919. Manual of tropical medicine, 3rd ed. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, London.Google Scholar
  6. Cato, E. P., and J. L. Johnson. 1976. Reinstatement of species rank for Bacteroides fragilis, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus: designation of neotype strains for Bacteroides fragilis Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Distaso) Castellani and Chalmers. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26: 230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cato, E. R, R. W. Kelley, W. E. C. Moore, and L. V. Holde-man. 1982. Bacteroides zoogleoformans (Weinberg, Nativelle, and Prévot 1983) corrig., comb. nov.: emended description. Int. J. Systs. Bacteriol. 32: 271–274.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, M. D. and H. N. Shah. 1986a. Reclassification of Bacteroides termitidis Sebald (Holdeman and Moore) in a new genus Sebaldella, as Sebaldela termiditis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 349–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins, M..D. and H. N. Shah. 1986b. Reclassification of Bacteroides praeacutus Tissier (Holdeman and Moore) in a new genus, Tissierella, as Tissierella praeacuta comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 461–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins, M. D. and H. N. Shah. 1987. Recent advances in the taxonomy of the genus Bacteroides, p. 249–258. In: S. P. Borriello, J. M. Hardie, B. S. Drasar, B. I. Duerden, M. J. Hudson and R. J. Lyson (ed.), Recent advances in anaerobic bacteriology. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins, M. D., H.N. Shah, and T. Mitsuoka. 1985. Reclassification of Bacteroides microfusus (Kaneuchi and Mitsuoka) in a new genus Rikenella, as Rikenella microfusus comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 79–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dowell, V. R., Jr., and T. M. Hawkins. 1974. Laboratory methods in anaerobic bacteriology, CDC Laboratory manual, DHEW Publication No. 74–8 272. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Drasar, B., and M. Hill. 1974. In: Human intestinal flora. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  14. Elleman, T. C. 1988. Pilins of Bacteroides nodosus: molecular basis of serotype variation and relationships to other bacterial pilins. Microbiol. Rev. 52: 233–247.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Finegold, S. M., W. L. George, and M. E. Mulligan. 1985. Disease-a-Month. In: N. J. Cotstonas Jr., (ed.)., Anaerobic infections, part 1, vol. 31. DM year book Medical publisher, Chicago.Google Scholar
  16. Gong, J., R. Y. Lo, and C. W. Forsverg. 1989. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a cellodextrinase gene from Bacteroides succinogenes S85, Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 55: 132–136.Google Scholar
  17. Haapasalo, M., H. Ranta, H. N. Shah, K. Ranta, K. Lounatmaa, and R. M. Kroppenstedt. 1986. Mitsuokella dentalis sp. nov. from dental root canals. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 566–568.Google Scholar
  18. Hammann, R. and H. Werner. 1983. Guanine-plus-cytosine content and production of phenylacetic acid by Bacteroides putredinis (Weinberg et al. 1937) Kelly (1957) and Bacteroides splanchnicus (Werner et al. 1957). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 120–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hentges, D. J., and L. D. Smith. 1985. Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of anaerobic bacteria, p. 105–119. In: I. A. Holder (ed.), Bacterial enzymes and virulence. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  20. Hofstad, T. 1980. Evaluation of the API-ZYM system for identification of Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168: 173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holbrook, W. P. and B. I. Duerden. 1974. A comparison of some characteristics of reference strains of Bacteroides oralis with Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Arch. Oral. Biol. 19: 1231–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holbrook, W. R, B. I. Duerden, and A. G. Deacon. 1977. The classification of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related species. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 43: 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holdeman, L. V. and J. L. Johnson. 1977. Bacteroides di-siens sp. nov. and Bacteroides bivius sp. nov. from human clinical infections. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27: 337–345.Google Scholar
  24. Holdeman, L. V. and J. L. Johnson. 1982. Description of Bacteroides loescheii sp. nov. and emendation of the descriptions of Bacteroides melaninogenicus (Oliver and Wherry) Roy and Kelly 1939 and Bacteroides denticola Shah and Collins 1981. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32: 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holdeman, L. V., R. W. Kelley, and W. E. C. Moore. 1984. Anaerobic Gram-negative straight, curved and helical rods, p. 604–631. In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  26. Holdeman, L. V., and W. E. C. Moore. 1970. Outline of clinical methods in anaerobic bacteriology, 2nd ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg, VA.Google Scholar
  27. Holdeman, L. V., and W. E. C. Moore. 1974. Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, p. 384–404. In: R. E. Buchanan and N. E. Gibbons (ed.) Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  28. Holdeman, L. V., W. E. C. Moore, P. J. Churn, and J. L. Johnson. 1982. Bacteroides oris and Bacteroides buccae, new species from human periodontitis and other human infections. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32: 125–131.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson, F. L., and Y. E. Goodman. 1978. Bacteroides ureolyticus, a new species to accommodate strains previously identified as “Bacteroides corrodens, anaerobic.” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 197–200.Google Scholar
  30. Jensen, N. S., and E. Canale-Parola. 1986. Bacteroides pectinophilus sp. nov., and Bacteroides galacturonicus sp. nov.,: two new pectinophilic bacteria from the human intestinal tract. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 880–887Google Scholar
  31. Johnson, J. L. 1973. Use of nucleic acid homologies in the taxonomy of anaerobic bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 23: 308–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, J. L. 1978. Taxonomy of the Bacteroides. I. Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among Bacteroides fragilis and other saccharolytic Bacteroides species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 245–256.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, J. L. and B. Harich. 1986. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid homology among species of the genus Bacteroides. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson, J. L. and L. V. Holdeman. 1983. Bacteroides intermedius comb. nov. and descriptions of Bacteroides corporis sp. nov. and Bacteroides levii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 15–25.Google Scholar
  35. Johnson, J. L. and L. V. Holdeman. 1985. Bacteroides capillus Kornman and Holt and Bacteroides pentosaceus Shah and Collins, later synonyms of Bacteroides buccae Holdeman et al. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 1–14.Google Scholar
  36. Kaneuchi, C., and T. Mitsuoka. 1978. Bacteroides microfusus, a new species from the intestines of calves, chickens and Japanase quails. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 28: 478–481.Google Scholar
  37. Kornman, K. S., and S. C. Holt. 1981. Physiological and ultrastructural characterization of a new Bacteroides species (Bacteroides capillus) isolated from severe localized periodontitis. J. Periodontal Res. 16: 543–555.Google Scholar
  38. Lambe, D. W., Jr. 1974. Determination of Bacteroides melaninogenicus serogroups by fluorescent antibody staining. Appl. Microbiol. 28: 561–567.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Loesche, W. J., S. S. Socransky, and R. J. Gibbons. 1964. Bacteroides oralis, proposed new species isolated from the oral cavity of man. J. Bacteriol. 88: 1329–1337.Google Scholar
  40. Love, D. N., J. L. Johnson, R. E Jones, M. Bailey, and A. Calverley. 1986. Bacteroides rectum sp. nov., characteristics of nonpigmented Bacteroides isolates from soft-tissue infections from cats and dogs. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 123–128.Google Scholar
  41. Love, D. N., J. L. Johnson, R. F. Jones, and A. Calverly. 1987. Bacteroides salivosus sp. nov., an asaccharolytic, black-pigmented species from cats. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 307–309.Google Scholar
  42. Mitsuoka, T., A. Terada, K. Watanabe, and K. Uchida. 1974. Bacteroides multiacidus, a new species from the feces of humans and pigs. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 24: 35–41.Google Scholar
  43. Miyagawa, E., R. Azuma, and T. Suto. 1979. Cellular fatty acid composition in Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods. J. Gen. Appl. Microboil. 25: 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miyagawa, E., R. Azuma, and T. Suto. 1981. Peptidoglycan composition of Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods. J. Gen. Appl. Biol. 27: 199–208.Google Scholar
  45. Miyagawa, E. and T. Suto. 1980. Cellular fatty acid composition in Bacteroides oralis and Bacteroides ruminicola. J. Gen. Appl. Biol. 26: 331–343.Google Scholar
  46. Montgomery, L., B. Flesher, and D. Stahl. 1988. Transfer of Bacteroides succinogenes (Hungate) to Fibrobacter gen. nov. as Fibrobacter succinogenes comb. nov. and description of Fibrobacter intestinalis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 430–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moore, W. E. C., E. R. Cato, and L. V. H. Moore. 1985. Index of the bacterial and yeast nomenclatural changes published in the Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. since the 1980 Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (1 January 1980 to January 1985 ). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 382–407.Google Scholar
  48. Murray, W. D., L. C. Sowden, and J. R. Colvin. 1984. Bacteroides cellulosolvens sp. nov., a cellulolytic species from sewage sludge. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 185–187.Google Scholar
  49. Okuda, K. T. Kato., J. Shiozu, I. Takazoe, and T. Nakamura. 1985. Bacteroides heparinolyticus sp. nov. isolated from humans with periodontitis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 438–442.Google Scholar
  50. Oliver, W. W., and W. B. Wherry. 1921. Notes on some bacterial parasites of the human mucous membranes. J. Infect. Dis. 28: 341–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paster, B. J., and E E. Dewhirst. 1988. Phylogeny of campylobacters, wolinellas, Bacteroides gracilis, and Bacteroides ureolyticus by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prefontaine, G., and E. L. Jackson. 1972. Cellular fatty acid profiles as an aid to the classification of `Corroding Bacilli’ and certain other bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22: 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prévot, A. R. 1938. Etudes de systematique bacterienne. Ann. Inst. Pasteur. 60: 285–307.Google Scholar
  54. Progulske-Fox, A., A. Oberste; C. Drummond, and W. P. McArthur. 1989. Transfer of plasmid pE5–2 from Escherichia coli to Bacteroides gingivalis and B. intermedius. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 4: 132–134.Google Scholar
  55. Reddy, C. A. and M. P. Bryant. 1977. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of certain species of the genus Bacteroides. Can. J. Microbiol. 23: 1252–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Salyers, A. A., N. B. Shoemaker, and E. P. Gurthie. 1987. Recent advances in Bacteroides genetics. CRC Critical Rev. Microbiol. 14: 49–71.Google Scholar
  57. Scholten-Koerselman, I., F. Houwaard, P. Janssen, and A.. B. Zehnder. 1986. Bacteroides xylanolyticus sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium from methane producing cattle manure. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol. 52: 543–554.Google Scholar
  58. Shah, H. N., R. Bonnett, B. Mateen, and R. A. D. Williams. 1979. The porphyrin pigmentation of subspecies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Biochem. J. 180: 45–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Shah, H. N. and M. D. Collins. 1980. Fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone composition in the classification of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related taxa. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 48: 75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shah, H. N. and M. D. Collins. 1981. Bacteroides buccalis sp. nov., Bacteroides denticola, sp. nov., and Bacteroides pentosaceus, sp. nov., new species of the genus Bacteroides from the oral cavity. Zentralnl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 1 Orig. Reihe C 2: 235–241.Google Scholar
  61. Shah, H. N. and M. D. Collins. 1982a. Reclassification of Bacteroides hypermegas (Harrison and Hansen) in a new genus Megamonas, as Megamonas hypermegas comb. nov. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 1 Orig. Reihe C 3: 394–398.Google Scholar
  62. Shah, H. N. and M. D. Collins. 1982b. Reclassification of Bacteroides multiacidus (Mitsuoka, Terada, Watanabe and Uchida) in a new genus Mitsuokella, as Mitsuokella multiacidus comb. nov. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 1 Orig. Reihe C 3: 491–494.Google Scholar
  63. Shah, H. N., and M. D. Collins. 1983. Genus Bacteroides: a chemotaxonomical perspective. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55: 403–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shah, H. N. and M. D. Collins. 1986. Reclassification of Bacteroides furcosus Veillon and Zuber (Hauduroy, Eh-ringer, Urbain, Guillot and Magron) in a new genus Anaerorhabdus, as Anaerorhabdus furcosus comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8: 86–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shah, H. N., and M. D. Collins. 1988. Proposal to reclassification of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Bacteroides endodontalis in a new genus, Porphyromonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 128–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shah, H. N., and M. D. Collins. 1989. Proposal to restrict the genus Bacteroides (Castellani and Chalmers) to Bacteroides fragilis and closely related species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 85–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shah, H. N., and M. D. Collins. 1990. Prevotella, a new genus to include Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related species formerly classified in the genus Bacteroides. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40: 205–208.Google Scholar
  68. Shah, H. N., M. D. Collins, J. Watabe and T. Mitsuoka. 1985. Bacteroides oulorum sp. nov., a non-pigmented saccharolytic species from the oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 193–197.Google Scholar
  69. Shah, H. N., T. J. M. van Steenbergen, J. M. Hardie, and J. de Graaff. 1982. DNA base composition, DNA-DNA reassociation and isoelectric-focusing of proteins of strains designated Bacteroides oralis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 13: 125–130.Google Scholar
  70. Shah, H. N. and R. A. D. Williams. 1982. Dehydrogenase patterns in the taxonomy of Bacteroides. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 2955–2965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Shah, H. N., R. A. D. Williams, G. H. Bowden, and J. M. Hardie. 1976. Comparison of the biochemical properties of Bacteroides melaninogenicus from human dental plaque and other sites. J. Appl. Microbio1. 41: 473–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shoemaker, N. B., C. Getty, J. E. Gardner, and A. A. Salyers. 1986. Tn4351 transposes in Bacteroides spp. and mediates the integration of plasmid R751 into the Bacteroides chromosome. J. Bacteriol. 165: 929–936.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Stackebrandt, E., and H. Hippe. 1986. Transfer of Bacteroides amylophilus to a new genus Ruminobacter gen. nov., nom. rev. as Ruminobacter amylophilus comb. nov. Sys. Appl. Microbiol. 8: 204–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart, D. J., and T. C. Elleman. 1987. A Bacteroides nodosus pili vaccine produced by recombinant DNA for the prevention and treatment of foot rot in sheep. Aus. Vet. J. 64:79–81Google Scholar
  75. Sutter, V. L., D. M. Citron, M. A. C. Edelstein, and S. M. Finegold 1985. Wadsworth anaerobic bacteriology manual, 4th. ed. Star Publishing Company, CA.Google Scholar
  76. Tanner, A. C. R., S. Badger, C. H. Lai, M. A. Listgarten, R. A. Visconti, and S. S. Socransky. 1981. Wollinella gen. nov. Wollinella succinogenes (Vibrio succinogenes Wollin et al.) comb. nov., and description of Bacteroides gracilis sp. nov., Wollinella recta sp. nov., Campylobacter concisus sp. nov., and Eikenella corrodens from humans with periodontal disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 432–445.Google Scholar
  77. Tanner, A. C. R., M. A. Listgarten, J. L. Ebersole, and M. N. Strzempko. 1986. Bacteroides forsythus sp. nov., a slow growing, fusiform Bacteroides sp. from the human oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36: 213–221.Google Scholar
  78. Tartera, C., and J. Jofre. 1987. Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 1632–1637.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Tartera, C., E Lucena, and J. Jofre. 1989. Human origin of Bacteroides fragilis bacteriophages present in the environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 2696–2701.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Topley, W. W. C., and G. S. Wilson. 1929. The principles of bacteriology and immunity (1st ed.). Edward Arnold and Co., London.Google Scholar
  81. Veillon, M. H., and H. Zuber. 1898. Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaerobies et leur cole en pathologie. Archives de Medicine Experimentale et d’Anatomie Pathologique. 10: 517–545.Google Scholar
  82. Watabe, J., Y. Benno, and T. Mitsuoka. 1983. Taxonomic study of Bacteroides oralis and related organisms and proposal of Bacteroides veroralis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haroun N. Shah

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations