Advertisement

The Prokaryotes pp 3331-3338 | Cite as

The Genus Pasteurella

  • Reggie Y. C. Lo
  • Patricia E. Shewen

Abstract

The genus Pasteurella is the type genus of the family Pasteurellaceae which comprises the recognized genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella (Mannheim, 1984). The organization of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella in a family has been established from phenotypic comparisons (Kilian and Frederiksen, 1981a, 1981b) as well as DNA-DNA hybridization analysis (Christian et al., 1981; Mannheim, 1981; Pohl, 1981) and 16S rRNA sequence analysis (Chuba et al., 1988). The members of the family Pasteurellaceae have had various taxonomic placements over the past 50 years. Some of these include Parvobacteriaceae in 1934 (Bergey, 1934) and Brucellaceae in 1957. The latter family included other genera such as Yersinia, Francisella, Moraxella, Bordetella, and Brucella in addition to Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella (Breed et al., 1957). In the 1984 Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, the family Pasteurellaceae is listed in Section 5 under “Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods” (Manheim, 1984). A detailed taxonomic analysis of the genus Pasteurella is described by Mutters et al. (1989). Using 16S RNA cataloging analysis, Woese et al. (1985) proposed that the family Pasteurellaceae be placed in the gamma subgroup of the purple bacteria together with the Enterobacteriaceae and the Vibrionaceae as the three families of Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria (Woese, 1987).

Keywords

Virulence Factor Domestic Duck Major Virulence Factor Bordetella Bronchiseptica Atrophic Rhinitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Adlam, C., J. M. Knights, A. Mugridge, J. C. Lindon, P. R. W. Baker, J. E. Beesley, B. Spacey, G. R. Craig, and L. K. Nagy. 1984. Purification, characterization and immunological properties of the serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide of Pasteurella haemolytica (serotype Al) organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 2415–2426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adlam, C. 1989. The structure, function and properties of cellular and extracellular components of Pasteurella haemolytica, p. 75–92. In: C. Adlam and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  3. Arons, M. S., L. Fernando, and I. M. Polayes. 1982. Pasteurella multocida-the major cause of hand infections following domestic animal bites. J. Hand Surg. 7: 4752.Google Scholar
  4. Bercovier, H., E Escande, and P. A. Grimont. 1984. Biological characterization of Actinobacillus species and Pasteurella ureae. Ann. Microbiol. Paris. 135A: 203–218.Google Scholar
  5. Bergey, D. H. 1934. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. 4th ed., p. 122–414. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  6. Biberstein, E. L., M. Gills, and H. Knight. 1960. Serological types of Pasteurella haemolytica. Cornall Vet. 50: 283–300.Google Scholar
  7. Bigel, M. L., L. D. Berardi-Grassias, and J. Furioli. 1988. Isolation of Actinobacillus ureae (Pasteurella ureae) from a patient with otitis media. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 206–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breed, R. S., E. G. D. Murray, and N. R. Smith. 1957. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 7th ed, p. 394–423. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  9. Brogden, K. A. 1989. Pasteurella anatipestifer infection, p. 115–129. In: C. Adlam and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  10. Brogden, K. A., C. Adlam, H. D. Lehmkuhl, R. C. Cutlip, J. M. Knights, and R. L. Engen. 1989. Effect of Pasteurella haemolytica (Al) capsular polysaccharide on sheep lung in vivo and on pulmonary surfactant in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50: 555–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter, G. R. 1984. Pasteurella, p. 552–557. In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  12. Carter, N., and M. C. L. de Alwis. 1989. Haemorrhagic septicaemia, p. 131–160. In: C. Adlam, and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  13. Carthero, P., and P. Aldred. 1988. Embryonic death in pregnant rats owing to intercurrent infection with Sendai virus and Pasteurella pneumotorpica. Lab. Anim. 22: 92–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang, Y. -E., R. Young, D. Post, and D. K. Struck. 1987. Identification and characterization of the Pasteurella hameolytica leukotoxin. Infect. Immun. 55: 2348–2354.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Chanter, N., J. M. Rutter, and A. Mackenzie. 1986. Partial purification of an osteolytic toxin from Pasteurella multocida. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: 1089–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chanter, N. 1990. Molecular aspects of the virulence of Pasteurella multocida. Can. J. Vet. Res. 54: S45–S47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chanter, N., and J. M. Rutter. 1989. Pasteurellosis in pigs and the determinants of virulence of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida, p. 161–195. In: C. Adlam, and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  18. Chaudbury, B. and S. Mahanta. 1985. Studies on the pathology of infectious serositis in ducklings. Indian Vet. J. 62: 552–553.Google Scholar
  19. Christian, C., E. Hansen, and A. Friis-Moller. 1981. Homology between DNA from selected strains of the genera Pasteurella, Actinobacillus and Haemophilus, p. 158–160. In: M. Kilian, W. Frederiksen and E. L. Biberstein (ed.), Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  20. Chuba, R. J., R. Bock, G. Graf, T. Adam, and U. Gobel. 1988. Comparison of 16s rRNA sequences from the family Pasteurellaceae: phylogenetic relatedness by cluster analysis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 1923–1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clinkenbeard, K. D., D. A. Mosier, and A. W. Confer. 1989. Transmembrane pore size and role of cell swelling in cytotoxicity caused by Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin. Infect. Immun. 57: 420–425.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Confer, A. W., R. J. Panciera, and D. A. Mosier. 1988. Bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis: immunity to Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 193: 1308–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Confer, A. W., and K. R. Simons. 1986. Effects of Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide on selected functions of bovine leukocytes. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 154–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Corstvet, R. E., M. J. Gentry, R. R. Newman, J. A. Rummage, and A. W. Confer. 1982. Demonstration of age-dependent capsular material on Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 1123–1126.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cowart, R. R, L. Bäckström, and T. A. Brim. 1989. Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia in swine. Can. J. Vet. Res. 53: 295–300.Google Scholar
  26. Dominick, M. A., and R. B. Rimler. 1986. Turbinate atrophy in gnotobiotic pigs intranasally inoculated with protins toxin isolated form type D Pasteurella multocida. Am J. Vet. Res. 47: 1532–1536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Donachie, W., N. J. L. Gilmour, D. L. Mould, and I. R. Pox-ton. 1984. Comparison of cell surface antigen extracts from two serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 1209–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Donahue, J. M., and L. D. Olson. 1969. Survey of wild ducks and geese for Pasteurella sp. Bull. Wildlife Dis. Assoc. 5: 201–205.Google Scholar
  29. Drzeniek, R., W. Scharmann and E. Balke. 1972. Neuraminidase and N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase of Pasteurella multocida. J. Gen. Microbiol. 72: 357–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Durham, J. A., A. W. Confer, D. A. Mosier, and B. A. Lessley. 1986. Comparison of the antigens associated with saline solution, potassium thiocyanate, and sodium salicylate extracts of Pasteurella haemolytica seotype 1. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1946–1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Elling, E. and K. B. Pederson. 1985. The pathogenesis of persistent turbinate atrophy induced by toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Vet. Pathol. 22: 469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Emau, R, S. N. Giri, and M. L. Bruss. 1986. Comparative effects of smooth and rough Pasteurella haemolytica polysaccharides on arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, serotonin, and histamine in calves. Circ. Shock 20: 239–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Emau, P., S. N. Giri, and M. L. Bruss. 1987. Effects of smooth and rough Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharides on plasma cyclic nucleotides and free fatty acids in calves. Vet. Microbiol. 15: 279–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Escande, E, E Grimont, R A. D. Grimont, and H. Bercovier. 1984. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among strains of Actinobacillus spp. and Pasteurella ureae. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 34: 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fodor, L., J. Varga, J. Hajtós, W. Donachie, and N. J. L. Gilmore. 1988. Characterization of a new serotype of P. haemolytica isolated in Hungary. Res. Vet. Sci. 44: 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Foreyt, W. J. 1989. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50: 341–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Frank, G. H., and G. E. Wessman. 1978. Rapid plate agglutination procedure for serotyping Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 142–145.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Frank, G. H. 1989. Pasteurellosis of cattle, p. 197–222. In: C. Adlam, and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  39. Fraser, J., S. Laird, and N. J. L. Gilmour. 1982. A new serotype (biotype T) of Pasteurella haemolytica. Res. Vet. Sci. 32: 127–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gadberry, J. L., R. Zipper, L. A. Taylor, and C. Wink. 1984. Pasteurella pneumotropica isolated form bone and joint infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 926–927.Google Scholar
  41. Gilmour, N. J. L., and J. S. Gilmour. 1989. Pasteurellosis of sheep, p. 223–262. In: C. Adlam, and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Gonzalez-Rayos, C., R. Y. C. Lo, P. E. Shewen, and T. J. Beveridge. 1986. Cloning of a serotype-specific antigen from Pasteurella haemolytica Al. Infect. Immun. 53: 505–510.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Grewal, P., K. Fonseca, and H. J. Andrews. 1983. Pasteurella ureae meningitis and septicaemia. J. Infect. 7: 7476.Google Scholar
  44. Heddleston, K. L. 1975. Pasteurellosis, p. 38–51. In: S. B. Hitchener, E. N. Domermuth, H. G. Purchese, and J. E. Williams (ed.), Isolation and identification of avian pathogens. American Association of Avian Pathology, Arnold, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  45. Ikeda, J. S., and D. C. Hirsh. 1988. Antigenically related iron-regulated outer membrane proteins produced by different somatic serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Infect. Immun. 56: 2499–2502.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaehler, K. L., R. J. F. Markham, C. C. Muscoplat, and D. W. Johnson. 1980. Evidence of cytocidal effects of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41: 1690–1893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kilian, M., and W. Frederiksen. 198la. Identification tables for the Haemophilus-Pasteurella-Actinobacillus group, p. 281–290. In: M. Kilian, W. Frederiksen and E. L. Biberstein (ed.), Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  48. Kilian, M., and W. Frederiksen. 1981b. Ecology of Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus, p. 11–38. In: M. Kilian, W. Frederiksen and E. L. Biberstein (ed.), Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  49. Kobisch, M. and A. Pennings. 1989. An evaluation of Nobi AR and an experimental atrophic rhinitis vaccine containing Pasteurella Multocida DNT-toxoid and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Rec. 127: 56–61.Google Scholar
  50. Kunstyr, I., and D. Hartmann. 1983. Pasteurella pneumotropica and the prevalence of the AHP (Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, Pasteurella) group in laboratory animals. Lab. Anim. 17: 156–160.Google Scholar
  51. Lesher, R. J., E. V. Jeszenka, and M. E. Swan. 1985. Enteritis caused by Pasteurella pneumotropica infection in hamsters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 448.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Lo, R. Y. C., P. E. Shewen, C. A. Strathdee, and C. N. Greer. 1985. Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene of Pasteurella haemolytica Al in Escherichia coli K-12. Infect. Immun. 50: 667–671.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Lo, R. Y. C., C. A. Strathdee, and P. E. Shewen. 1987. Nucleotide sequence of the leukotoxin genes of Pasteurella haemolytica Al. Infect. Immun. 55: 1987–1996.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Mannheim, W. 1981. Taxonomic implications of DNA relatedness and quinone patterns in Actinobacillus, Haemophilus and Pasteurella, p. 265–280. In: M. Kilian, W. Frederiksen and E. L. Biberstein (ed.), Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  55. Mannheim, W. 1984. Pasteurellaceae, p. 550–552. In: N. R. Krieg, and J. D. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  56. Marriott, D. J., and L. M. Brady. 1983. Pasteurella ureae meningitis. Med. J. Aust. 2: 455–456.Google Scholar
  57. McAllister, H. A., and G. R. Carter. 1974. An aerogenic Pasteurella-like organism recovered from swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35: 917–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mo, C. L., and E. C. Burgess. 1987. Infection of duck plague carriers with Pasteurella multocida and P anatipestifer. Avian Dis. 31: 197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morck, D. W., M. E. Olson, S. D. Acres, P. -Y. Daoust, and J. W. Costerton. 1989. Presence of bacterial glycocalyx and fimbriae on Pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Can. J. Vet. Res. 53: 167–171.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Morck, D. W., T. J. G. Raybould, S. D. Acres, L. A. Babiuk, J. Nelligan, and J. W. Costerton. 1987. Electron microscopic description of glycocalyx and fimbriae on the surface of Pasteurella haemolytica Al. Can. J. Vet. Res. 51: 83–88.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Morck, D. W., T. C. Watts, S. D. Acres, and J. W. Costerton. 1988. Electron microscopic examination of cells of Pasteurella haemolytica Al in experimentally infected cattle. Can. J. Vet. Res. 52: 343–348.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Mosier, D. A., A. W. Confer, and R. J. Panciera. 1989. The evolution of vaccines for bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 47: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mosier, D. A., R. K. Simons, A. W. Confer, R. J. Panciera and K. D. Clinkenbeard. 1989. Pasteurella haemolytica antigens associated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis. Infect. Immun. 57: 711–716.Google Scholar
  64. Munday, K. G., P. R. Rao, P. K. Sriraman, V. P. Rao, and M. J. Reddy. 1981. Air sacculitis in ducks. Indian Vet. J. 58: 13–14.Google Scholar
  65. Mutters, R., W. Frederiksen, and W. Mannheim. 1984. Lack of evidence for the occurence of Pasteurella ureae in rodents. Vet. Microbiol. 9: 83–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mutters, R., P. Ihm, S. Pohl, W. Frederiksen, and W. Mannheim. 1985. Reclassification of the genus Pasteurella Trevisan 1887 on the basis of deoxyridonucleic acid homology, with proposals for the new species Pasteurella dagmatis, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella stomatis, Pasteurella anatis and Pasteurella langae. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 35: 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mutters, R., and W. Mannheim. 1984. Addendum to the genus Pasteurella, p. 557–558. In: N. R. Krieg, J. D. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  68. Mutters, R., W. Mannheim, and M. Bisgaard. 1989. Taxonomy of the group, p. 3–34. In: C. Adlam and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  69. Nakai. T., and K. Kume. 1985. Intracellular location of dermonecrotic toxins in Pasteurella multocida and in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 870–874.Google Scholar
  70. Nakai, T., and K. Kume. 1987a. Purification of three fragments of the dermonecrotic toxin from Pasteurella multocida. Res. Vet. Sci. 42: 232–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nakai, T., and K. Kume. 1987b. Reconstruction of Pasteurella multocida dermonectrotic toxin from three polypeptides. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 44: 259–265.Google Scholar
  72. Nobel, R. C., B. J. Marek, and S. B. Overman. 1987. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Pasteruella ureae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 442–444.Google Scholar
  73. Otulakowski, G. L., P. E. Shewen, A. E. Udoh, A. Mellors, and B. N. Wilkie. 1983. Proteolysis of sialogly coprotein by Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxic culture supernatant. Infect. Immun. 42: 64–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Piechulle, K., S. Pohl, and W. Mannheim. 1986. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of so-called Moraxella (Pasteurella) anatipestifer to the Flavobacterium/Cytophaga group. Vet. Microbiol. 11: 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pohl, S. 1981. DNA relatedness among members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus and Pasteurella, p. 246–253. In: M. Kilian, W. Frederiksen and E. L. Biberstein (ed.), Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  76. Pohl, S., H. U. Bertschinger, W. Frederiksen, and W. Mannheim. 1983. Transfer of Haemophilus pleuropneumonia and the Pasteurella haemolytica like organisms causing porcine necrotic pleuropneumonia to the genus Actinobacillus (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae comb. nov.) on the basis of phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 33: 510–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Potter, A. A., K. Ready, and J. Gilchrist. 1988. Purification of fimbriae from Pasteurella haemolytica Al. Microbiol. Path. 4: 311–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rhoades, K. R., and R. B. Rimler. 1989. Fowl cholera, p. 95–113. In: C. Adlam, and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  79. Rimler, R. B. 1987. Cross protection factors of Pasteurella multocida passive immunization of turkeys against fowl cholera caused by different serotypes. Avian Dis. 31: 884–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rimier, R. B., and K. R. Rhoades. 1989a. Serogroup F, a new serogroup of Pasteurella multocida. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 615–618.Google Scholar
  81. Rimler, R. B., and K. B. Rhoades. I 989b. Pasteurella multocida, p. 37–73. In: C. Adlam and J. M. Rutter (ed.), Pasteurella and pasteurellosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  82. Rutter, J. M., and A. Mackenzie. 1984. Pathogenesis of atrophic rhinitis in pigs: a new perspective. Vet. Rec. 114: 89–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rutter, J. M. 1985. Atrophic rhinitis in swine. Adv. Vet. Sci. and Comp. Med. 29: 239–279.Google Scholar
  84. Sammarco, G. J., and P. A. Leist. 1986. Osteomyelitis of the heel with Pasteurella pneumotropica: a case report. Foot Ankel 6: 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shewen, P. E., and B. N. Wilkie. 1982. Cytotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica acting on bovine leukocytes. Infect. Immun. 35: 91–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Shewen, P. E., and B. N. Wilkie. 1987. Vaccination of calves with leukotoxic culture supernatant from Pasteurella haemolytica. Can. J. Vet. Res. 52: 30–36.Google Scholar
  87. Snipes, K. P., T. E. Carpenter, J. L. Corn, R. W. Kasten, D. C. Hirsh, D. W. Hird, and R. H. McCapes. 1 988a. Pasteurella multocida in wild mammals and birds in California: prevalence and virulence for turkeys. Avian Dis. 31: 9–15.Google Scholar
  88. Snipes, K. P., L. M. Hansen, and D. C. Hirsh. 1988b. Plasma and iron-regulated expression of high molecular weight outer membrane proteins by Pasteurella multocida. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 1336–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Strathdee, C. A., and R. Y. C. Lo. 1987. Extensive homology between the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica Al and the alphahemolysin of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 55: 3233–3236.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Strathdee, C. A., and R. Y. C. Lo. 1989. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of genes encoding the secretion function of the Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin determinant. J. Bacteriol. 171: 916–928.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Sutherland, A. D., W. Donachie, G. E. Jones, and M. Quirie. 1989. A crude cytotoxin vaccine protects sheep against experimental Pasteurella haemolytica A 2 infection. Vet. Microbiol. 19: 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trigo, E., and C. Pijoan. 1988. Presence of pili in Pasteurella multocida strains associated with atrophic rhinitis. Vet. Rec. 122: 19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Truscott, W. M., and D. C. Hirsh. 1988. Demonstration of an outer membrane protein with antiphagocytic activity from Pasteurella multocida of avian origin. Infect. Immun. 56: 1538–1544.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Verhaegan, J., H. Verbraeken, A. Cabut, J. Vandeven, and J. Vandepitte. 1988. Actinobacillus (formaly Pasteurella) ureae meningitis and bacteraemia: report of a case and review of the literature. J. Infect. 17: 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ward, G. E., R. Moffatt, and E. Olfert. 1978. Abortion in mice associated with Pasteurella pneumotropica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 177–180.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Wessman, G. E., and G. Hilker. 1968. Characterization of Pasteurella haemolytica isoalted from the respiratory tract of cattle. Can. J. Comp. Med. 32: 498–504.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Wobeser, G., and G. E. Ward. 1974. Pasteurella antipestifer infection in migrating whistling swans. J. Wildlife Dis. 10: 466–470.Google Scholar
  98. Woese, C. R. 1987. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221–271.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Woese, C. R., W. G. Weisburg, C. M. Hahn, B. J. Paster, L. B. Zablen, B. J. Lewis, T. J. Macke, W. Ludwig, and E. Stackebtandt. 1985. The phylogeny of the purple subgroup bacteria: the gamma subdivision. System. and Appl. Microbiol. 6: 25–33.Google Scholar
  100. Yagupsky, R, A. Simo, and R. Gorodischer. 1985. Pasteurella ureae meningitis as complication of skull fractures. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 589–590.Google Scholar
  101. Yamada, S., J. Mizoguchi, and T. Ohtaki. 1986. Effect of estrogen on Pasteurella pneumotropica in rat vagina. Lab. Anim. 20: 185–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yates, W. D. G. 1982. A review of infectious bovine rhinotricheitis, shipping fever pneumonia and viral-bacterial aynergism in respiratory disease of cattle. Can. J. Comp. Med. 46: 225–263.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reggie Y. C. Lo
  • Patricia E. Shewen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations