Ceramics are refractory, polycrystalline compounds, usually inorganic, including silicates, metallic oxides, carbides, and various refractory hydrides, sulfides, and selenides. Oxides such as Al2O3, MgO, and SiO2 contain metallic and nonmetallic elements, whereas others such as NaCl, CsCl, and ZnS are ionic salts. Exceptions are diamond and carbonaceous structures like graphite and pyrolized carbons, which are covalently bonded. Important factors influencing the structure-property relationship of the ceramic materials are radius ratios (Section 2.2.2) and the relative electronegativity between the positive and negative ions.
KeywordsFlexural Strength Calcium Phosphate Barium Titanate Calcium Aluminate Pyrolytic Carbon
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- J. C. Bokros, R. J. Arkins, H. S. Shim, A. D. Haubold, and N. K. Agarwal, “Carbon in Prosthetic Devices,” in Petroleum Derived Carbons ( M. L. Deviney and T. M. O’Grady, eds.), American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1976.Google Scholar
- K. de Groot (ed.), Bioceramics of Calcium Phosphate, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983.Google Scholar
- R. M. Gill, Carbon Fibres in Composite Materials, Butterworths, London, 1972.Google Scholar
- J. J. Gilman, “The Nature of Ceramics,” in Materials ( D. Flanagen et al., eds.), W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1967.Google Scholar
- G. W. Hastings and D. F. Williams (eds.), Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials,Part 3, J. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 207–274.Google Scholar
- S. F. Hulbert and F. A. Young (eds.), Use of Ceramics in Surgical Implants, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
- S. F. Hulbert, F. A. Young, and D. D. Moyle (eds.), J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Symp., No. 2, 1972.Google Scholar
- W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen, and D. R. Uhlmann, Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed., J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
- D. McConell, Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Biologic Occurrence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973.Google Scholar
- P. W. McMillan, Glass-Ceramics, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
- F. Norton, Elements of Ceramics, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1974.Google Scholar