Lenticular Senescence and the Retina

  • Robert Weale
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)


Ever since the time of Helmholtz, research workers have concerned themselves with why and how presbyopia occurs (Bito, 1988; Brückner, 1959). However, the matter has only rarely been approached from an evolutionary point of view (cf. Bito and Miranda, 1987). The outstanding question in this context is not so much why accommodation is lost in midlife as why it is well over 10 D in the very young. In what circumstances does anyone have to form detailed retinal images of objects a mere 8 or 10 cm from the eyes?


Visual Acuity Spatial Frequency Retinal Pigment Epithelium Contrast Sensitivity Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Weale
    • 1
  1. 1.Age Concern Institute of Gerontology., King’s College LondonUniversity of LondonLondonGreat Britain

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