Many investigators have described the effects of accidental or experimental Cd2+ inntoxication in a wide range of mammalian systems (for reviews see Samarawickrama, 1979; Webb, 1979). There are various common features such as bone demineralisation, hypercalcaemia, anaemia, hypertension, and accumulation of Cd2+ in the liver, then in other tissue, predominantly the kidney. Among the consequences of Cd2+ nephrotoxicity are various cellular and biochemical effects, proteinuria, glucosuria, hypercalciuria and amingaciduria (Piscator, 1986; Samarawickrama, 1979). On administration, Cd2+ is bound to thionein, a low molecular weight protein synthesised in the liver. The resulting metallothionein builds up, and is slowly released by the liver. In the kidney it can pass through the glommruli and be reabsorbed. At a certain total level of the metal, some Cd2+ will not be bound in metallothionein and can therefore exert a toxic effect (Piscator, 1986) .
KeywordsHydrolysis Magnesium Filtration EDTA Cobalt
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barnard, T. and Afzelius, B.A., 1972. The matrix granules of mitochondria: a review, Sub-Cell, Biochem. 1:373.Google Scholar
- Ghadially, F.N., 1982. “Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix,” 2nd ed., Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, E.O., Cook, J.A., DiLuzio, N.R. and Coover, J.A., 1975. The effects of acute cadmium administration in the liver and kidney of the rat, Lab. Invest., 32:655.Google Scholar
- Jenis, E.H. and Lowenthal, D.T., 1977. “Kidney Biopsy Interpretation,” F.A. Davis, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
- Matthews, J.L., Martin, J. H., Arsenis, C., Einstein, R. and Kuettner, K., 1971. The role of mitochondria in intracellular regulation, In: “Cellular Mechanisms for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis,” G. Nichols and R.H. Wasserman, eds. , Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Piscator, M., 1986. The nephropathy of chronic cadmium poisoning, In: “Cadmium,” Handbook Experimental Pharmamacology, 80, E.C. Foulkes, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
- Samarawickrama, G.P., 1979. Biological effects of cadmium in mammals, In: “The Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology of Cadmium,” M. Webb, ed., North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Webb, M., 1964. The biological action of cobalt and other metals IV. Inhibition of alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, Biochem, Biophvs. Acta, 89:431.Google Scholar
- Webb, M., 1979. Interactions of cadmium and cellular components, In: “The Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology of Cadmium,” M. Webb, ed., North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar