Renal Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Gentamicin, Cyclosporin a and Cisplatinum Acute Renal Failure in Rats
Several studies suggest that it is possible to evaluate renal pathology by magnetic resonance imaging due to the sensitivity of the method in differentiating normal from pathological renal tissue (1–9). Proton magnetic resonance measurements are based on the properties of hydrogen nuclei that have spin. When placed in a magnetic field they orient themselves in the direction of the field. By application of a radio frequency pulse of suitable frequency, the direction of the spinning axis may be modified. After the pulse, the protons return to their original orientation emitting measurable signals. These signals grow and decay according to characteristic relaxation times; T1 “spin-lattice” (longitudinal) and T2 “spin-spin” (transverse) relaxation times. T1 reflects the interaction of the hydrogen nucleus with its molecular environment, whereas T2 reflects magnetic interactions between protons (10–12). In vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a direct measurement of different normal and abnormal tissues magnetic resonance properties (10–17). Using in vitro proton magnetic resonance measurements we demonstrated different profiles of relaxation times in different forms of experimental acute and chronic renal failure in rats (14,15).
KeywordsAcute Renal Failure Hydration Water Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Proton Magnetic Resonance Measurement Radio Frequency Pulse
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