Some Considerations on Critical Concentration of Cadmium for Renal Toxicity in Rats
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic environmental pollutant. Environmental and occupational exposure results in the accumulation of this metal particularly in the liver and kidney and during the life-long exposure a renal Cd concentration becomes higher than a hepatic Cd concentration, which often causes renal tubular dysfunction (Friberg et al., 1985). Thus, we need to know the critical concentration of Cd to obtain information on the safety margin of exposure to this metal and the allowable daily intake levels.
KeywordsZinc Toxicity Chromate Lactate Cadmium
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Friberg, L., Piscator, M., Nordberg, G.F. and Kjellstram, T., 1974, Cadmium in the Environment, 2nd ed., CRC, Cleveland.Google Scholar
- Friberg, L., Elinder, C.-G., Kjellstrom and Nordberg, G.F., Editors, 1985, “Cadmium and Health: A Toxicologixcal and Epidemiological Appraisal,” CRC press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
- Kagi, J.H.R. and Nordberg, M., 1979, Metallothionein, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
- Lauwerys, R.R. and Bernard, A.M., 1986, Cadmium and the kidney, Brit. J. Ind. Med., 43:433.Google Scholar
- Nomiyama, K., 1981, Renal effects of cadmium, In: “Cadmium in the Environment,” J.O. Nriagu ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
- Roels, H.A., Lauwerys, R.R., Buchet, J.-P., Bernard, A., Chettle, D.R., Harvey, T.C. and Al-Haddad, I.K., 1981, In vivo measurement of liver and kidney cadmium in workers exposed to this metal: its significance with respect to cadmium in blood and urine, Environ. Res., 26:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki, K.T., 1982, Induction and degradation of metallothionein and their relation to the toxicity of cadmium, In: Biological Roles of Metallothionein, E.C. Foulkes, ed., Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Task Group on Metal Toxicity, 1976, Conceptual considerations: critical organ, critical concentration in cells and organs, critical effect, subcritical effect, dose-effect and dose-response relationships, In: “Effects and Dose-response Relationships of Toxic Metals,” G.F. Nordberg, ed., Elsevier / North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Tohyama, C., Sugihira, N. and Saito, H., 1987a, Critical concentration of cadmium for renal toxicity in rats, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 22: (in press) .Google Scholar
- Tohyama, C., Ishida, M., Sugihira, N. and Suzuki, K.T., 1987b, Metallothionein in the tissues and, body fluids in Cd-injected rats, In: “Toxicology of Metals; clinical and experimental research,” S.S. Brown and Y. Kodama, ed., Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
- Webb, M., 1979, The metallothioneins, In: The Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology of Cadmium, M. Webb, ed., Elsevier / North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar