Detection of early lead nephropathy in industrial workers has been difficult, particularly as albuminuria is absent until late stages of the disease (1) . Changes in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have proved to be relatively insensitive indices of renal impairment in individual workers, although epidemiological studies in large numbers of workers have indicated a statistically significant increase in both parameters with length of exposure to lead, even when corrected for age (2) . Furthermore, Wedeen (1) demonstrated that lead workers with normal serum creatinine and BUN values may have subtle renal impairment, as indicated by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and abnormal renal biopsies .
KeywordsProximal Tubule Blood Lead Level Urinary Enzyme Urinary Lead Plasma Lead
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