Advertisement

Germ Cell Tumors of the Ovary

  • A. Talerman
  • F. R. C. Path

Abstract

This group of ovarian neoplasms is composed of a number of histologically different tumor types and embraces all the neoplasms considered to be ultimately derived from the primitive germ cells of the embryonic gonad. The concept of germ cell tumors as a specific group of gonadal neoplasms has evolved in the last three decades. It is based on (1) the common histogenesis of these neoplasms, (2) the relatively frequent presence of histologically different neoplastic elements within the same tumor mass, and (3) the presence of histologically similar neoplasms in extragonadal locations along the line of migration of the primitive germ cells from the wall of the yolk sac to the gonadal ridge,332 as well as on the remarkable homology between the various tumors in the male and the female.

Keywords

Germ Cell Germ Cell Tumor Embryonal Carcinoma Cystic Teratoma Gonadal Dysgenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abbot TM, Herman WJ Jr, Scully RE (1984) Ovarian fetiform teratoma (homunculus) in a 9-year-old girl. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2: 392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abell MR, Johnson VJ, Holtz F (1965) Ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. Part 1. Tumors of germ cell origin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92: 1059Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abitol MM, Pomerance W, Mackles A (1959) Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of benign cystic teratomas. Review of literature and report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 13: 198Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Afridi MA, Vongtama V, Tsukada Y, Piver MS (1976) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Radiation therapy for recurrence and metastases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126: 190Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aguirre P, Scully RE (1982) Malignant neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary: A distinctive form of monodermal teratoma. Report of five cases. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 283Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Albrechtsen R, Klee JG, Moller JE (1972) Primary intracranial germ cell tumours, including five cases of endodermal sinus tumour. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [80A Suppl] 233: 32Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allard S, Cadotte M, Boivin Y (1972) Dysgenesie gonadique pure familiale et gonadoblastome. L’Union Medicale du Canada 101: 448Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson CT Jr, Carlson IH (1975) Elevated plasma testosterone and gonadal tumors in two 46XY “sisters.” Arch Pathol 99: 360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson MC, McDicken IW (1971) Melanotic cyst of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commw 78: 1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ansfield FJ, Korbitz BC, Davis HL, Ramirez G (1969) Triple drug therapy in testicular tumors. Cancer 24: 442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arhelger RB, Kelly B (1974) Strumal carcinoid. Report of a case with electron microscopical observations. Arch Pathol 97: 323Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asadourian LA, Taylor HB (1969) Dysgerminoma. An analysis of 105 cases. Obstet Gynecol 33: 370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Awais GA (1983) Dysgerminoma and serum lactic dehydrogenase levels. Obstet Gynecol 61: 99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Azoury RS, Jubayli NW, Barakat BY (1973) Dermoid cyst of the ovary containing fetus-like structure. Obstet Gynecol 42: 887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bagg HJ (1936) Experimental production of teratoma testis in a fowl. Am J Cancer 26: 69Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ballas M (1972) Yolk sac carcinoma of the ovary with alpha-fetoprotein in serum and ascitic fluid demonstrated by immunoosmophoresis. Am J Clin Pathol 57: 511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ballas M (1974) The significance of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum of patients with malignant teratomas and related gonadal neoplasms. Am J Clin Lab Sci 4: 267Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bardin CW, Rosen S, Le Maire WJ, Tjio JH, Gallup J, Marshall J, Savard K (1968) In vivo and in vitro studies of androgen metabolism in a patient with pure gonadal dysgenesis and Leydig cell hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29: 1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barry KG, Crosby WH (1957) Autoimmune hemolytic anemia arrested by removal of ovarian teratoma: Review of the literature and report of a case. Ann Int Med 47: 1002Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bartlett DJ, Grant JK, Pugh MA, Aherne W (1968) A familial feminizing syndrome. A family showing intersex characteristics with XY chromosomes in three female members. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commw 75: 199Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Battifora H, Sheibani K, Tubbs RR, Kopinski MI, Sun TT (1984) Antikeratin antibodies in tumor diagnosis. Distinction between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Cancer 54: 843Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beck JS, Fulmer HF, Lee ST (1969) Solid malignant ovarian teratoma with “embryoid bodies” and trophoblastic differentiation. J Pathol 99: 67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beilby JOW, Todd PJ (1974) Yolk sac tumour of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commw 81: 90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berg JW, Baylor SM (1973) The epidemiologic pathology of ovarian cancer. Hum Pathol 4: 537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bergher de Bacalao E, Dominguez I (1969) Unilateral gonadoblastoma in a pregnant woman. Am J Obstet Gynecol 105: 1279Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bergstrand CG, Czar B (1956) Demonstration of a new protein fraction in serum from human fetus. Scand J Lab Invest 8: 174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bernstein D, Naor S, Rikover M, Manahem H (1974) Hemolytic anemia related to ovarian tumor. Obstet Gynecol 43: 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bestle J (1968) Extragonadal endodermal sinus tumours originating in the region of the pineal gland. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 74: 214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bettinger HF, Jacobs H (1948) Mesonephroma ovarii. Med J Aust 1: 100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blackwell WJ, Dockerty MB, Masson JC, Mussey RD (1946) Dermoid cysts of the ovary; clinical and pathological significance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 51: 151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boczkowski K, Teter J, Sternadel Z (1972) Sibship occurrence of XY gonadal dysgenesis with dysgerminoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 113: 952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Borushek S, Berger I, Echt C, Gold JJ (1965) Functioning malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary in a 41/2 year old girl. Cancer 18: 1485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bradof JE, Hakes TB, Ochoa M, Golbey R (1982) Germ cell malignancies of the ovary. Treatment with vinblastine, actinomycin D, bleomycin and cisplatin containing chemotherapy combinations. Cancer 50: 1070Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Braunstein H, Stephens CL, Gibson RL (1968) Secretory granules in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Electron microscopic demonstration. Arch Pathol 85: 306Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Breen JL, Maxson WS (1977) Ovarian tumors in children and adolescents. Clin Obstet Gynecol 20: 607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Breen JL, Neubecker RD (1963) Malignant teratoma of the ovary. An analysis of 17 cases. Obstet Gynecol 21: 669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Breen JL, Neubecker RD (1967) Ovarian malignancy in children with special reference to the germ cell tumors. Ann NY Acad Sci 142: 658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brody S (1961) Clinical aspects of dysgerminoma of the ovary. Acta Radiol (Stockholm) 56: 209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brown JR, Green JD (1976) Yolk sac carcinoma. South Med J 69: 728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burkons DM, Hart WR (1978) Ovarian germinomas (dysgerminomas). Obstet Gynecol 51: 221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cabanne F (1971) Gonadoblastomes et tumerus de l’ebauche gonadique. Ann Anat Pathol (Paris) 16: 387Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carleton RL, Friedman NB, Bomze EJ (1953) Experimental teratomas of testis. Cancer 6: 464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Caruso PA, Marsh MR, Minkowitz S, Karten G (1971) An intense clinicopathologic study of 305 teratomas of the ovary. Cancer 27: 343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chenot M (1911) Contribution à l’étude des épithéliomas primitifs de l’ovaire. Thesis, ParisGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chevassu M (1906) Tumeurs du Testicule. Thesis, Steinhall ParisGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chretien PB, Milam JD, Foote FW, Miller TR (1970) Embryonal adenocarcinomas (a type of malignant teratoma) of the sacrococcygeal region. Clinical and pathologic aspects of 21 cases. Cancer 26: 522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chumas JC, Rosenwaks Z, Mann JW, Finkel G, Pastore J (1984) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary producing alpha-fetoprotein. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3: 213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Climie AR, Heath LP (1968) Malignant degeneration of benign cystic teratoma of the ovary. Review of the literature and report of a chondrosarcoma and a carcinoid tumor. Cancer 22: 824Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Collins DH, Symington T (1965) Sertoli cell tumour. In: Collins DH, Pugh RCB (eds) The pathology of testicular tumours. Edinburgh and London, Livingstone Ltd., pp 52–61Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cooperman LR, Hamlin J, Elmer N (1968) Gonadoblastoma: A rare ovarian tumor with characteristic roentgen appearance. Radiology 90: 322Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Corfman PA, Richart RM (1964) Chromosome number and morphology of benign cystic teratomas. N Engl J Med 271: 1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cutler BS, Forbes AP, Ingersoll FM, Scully RE (1972) Endometrial carcinoma after stilbestrol therapy in gonadal dysgenesis. N Engl J Med 287: 628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dalgaard JB, Wetteland P (1956) Struma ovarii. A follow-up study of 20 cases. Acta Chir Scand 112: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Damjanov I, Drobnjak P, Grizelj V (1975). Ultrastructure of gonadoblastoma. Arch Pathol 99: 25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dandia SD (1967) Rectovesical fistula following an ovarian dermoid with recurrent vesical calculus. A case report. J Urol 97: 85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davidsohn I, Kovarik S, Stejskal R (1968) Immunological aspects. Influence of prognosis and treatment. In: Gentil F, Junqueira AC (eds) Ovarian cancer U.I. C.C. Monograph Series, Vol 11. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-Verlag, pp 105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dawson MA, Wilimer T, Yarbro JW (1971) Hemolytic anemia associated with an ovarian tumor. Am J Med 50: 552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dayal Y, Tashjian AH Jr, Wolfe HJ (1979) Immunocytochemical localization ofcalcitonin-producing cells in a strumal carcinoid with amyloid stroma. Cancer 43: 1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Haan QC (1965) Non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 26: 708Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Lima FAO (1966) Disgerminoma do Ovario, contribucao para o seo estudo anatomo-clinico. Thesis, Sao Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dikman SH, Toker C (1971) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary with musculinization. Cancer 27: 925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Diligent E (1971) Gonadoblastomes et dysgenesies pseudogonadoblastiques. Thesis. NancyGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dixon FJ, Moore RA (1952) Tumors of the male sex organs. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Sect VIII, Fasc 31b and 32. Washington, D.C., Armed Forces Institute of PathologyGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Duhig JT (1959) An unusual adenocarcinoma of the ovary. A case simulating Schiller’s mesonephroma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 77: 201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Duval M (1891) Le placenta de rongeurs. J Anat Physiol (Paris) 27: 515Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Einhorn LH, Donohue J (1977) Cisdiammine dichloroplatinum, vinblastine, and bleomycin combination chemotherapy in disseminated testicular cancer. Ann Intern Med 87: 293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Emge LA (1940) Functional and growth characteristics of struma ovarii. Am J Obstet Gynecol 40: 738Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Engel T, Greeley AV, Sweeney WJ III (1965) Recurrent dermoid cysts of the ovary. Report of 2 cases. Obstet Gynecol 26: 757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Erez SE, Richart RM, Shettles LB (1965) Hashimoto’s disease in a benign cystic teratoma of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92: 273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Evans RW (1957) Developmental stages of embryo-like bodies in teratoma testis. J Clin Pathol 10: 321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Evans RW (1966) Histological appearances of tumours, 2nd ed. Edinburgh and London, LivingstoneGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ewing J (1940) Neoplastic diseases, 4th ed. Philadelphia, Saunders, pp 641, 672Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Felmus LB, Pedowitz P (1968) Clinical malignancy of endocrine tumors of the ovary and dysgerminoma. Obstet Gynecol 29: 344Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Flamant F, Caillou B, Pejovic MH, Gerard-Marchant R, Gout M, Lemerle J, Sarrazin D, Zucker JM, Schweisguth 0 (1978) Prognostic factors in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children excluding pure dysgerminoma. Eur J Cancer 14: 901Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Forney JP, Di Saia PJ, Morrow CP (1975) Endodermal sinus tumor. A report of two sustained remissions treated postoperatively with a combination of actinomycin D, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. Obstet Gynecol 45: 186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fox H, Langley FA (1976) Tumours of the ovary. London, William Heinemann Medical BooksGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fox H, Kazzaz B, Langley FA (1964) Argyrophil and argentaffin cells in the female genital tract and in ovarian mucinous cysts. J Pathol Bacteriol 88: 479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Frazier SD, Bashore RA, Mosier HD (1964) Gonadoblastoma associated with pure gonadal dysgenesis in monozygous twins. J Pediatr 64: 740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fred JH, Cassir JF, Pierce VK, Woodruff J, Lewis JL Jr (1979) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Cancer 43: 798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Friedman NB (1951) The comparative morphogenesis of extragenital and gonadal teratoid tumors. Cancer 4: 265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Friedman NB, Moore RA (1946) Tumors of the testis. A report of 922 cases. Mil Surgeon 99: 573Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fujii S, Konishi I, Suzuki A, Okamura H, Okazaki T, Mori T (1985) Analysis of serum lactic dehydrogenase levels and its isoenzymes in ovarian dysgerminoma. Gynecol Oncol 22: 65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Galager HS, Lewis RP (1973) Sequential gonadoblastoma and choriocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 41: 123Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gallion H, Van Nagell JR, Powell DF, Donaldson ES, Hanson M (1979) Therapy of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Galton M, Benirschke K (1959) 46 chromosomes in an ovarian teratoma. Lancet 2: 761Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gans B, Bahary C, Levie B (1963) Ovarian regeneration and pregnancy following massive radiotherapy for dysgerminoma. Report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 22: 596Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Garvin AJ, Pratt-Thomas HR, Spector M, Spicer SS, Williamson HO (1976) Gonadoblastoma: Histologic, ultra-structural and histochemical observations in five cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 125: 459Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gershenson DM, Del Junco G, Herson J, Rutledge FN (1983) Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. The M.D. Anderson experience. Obstet Gynecol 61: 194Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gershenson DM, Copeland LJ, Kavanagh JJ, Cangir A, Del Junco G, Saul PB, Stringer CA, Freedman RS, Edwards CL, Wharton JT (1985) Treatment of malignant nondysgerminomatous germ cell tumors of the ovary with vincristine, dactinomycin and cyclophosphamide. Cancer 56: 2756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gillman J (1948) The development of the gonads in man with consideration of the role of fetal endocrines and the histogenesis of ovarian tumors. Contrib Embryol 32: 83Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gitlin D, Boesman M (1967) Sites of serum alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in the human and in the rat. J Clin Invest 46: 1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gitlin D, Pericelli A (1970) Synthesis of serum albumin, prealbumin, alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-l-antitrypsin and transferrin by the human yolk sac. Nature 228: 995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gitlin D, Pericelli A, Gitlin G (1972) Synthesis of alphafetoprotein by liver, yolk sac and gastrointestinal tract of the human conceptus. Cancer Res 32: 979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Goldsmith CI, Hart WR (1975) Ataxia-telangiectasia with ovarian gonadoblastoma and contralateral dysgerminoma. Cancer 36: 1838Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goldstein DP, Piro JA (1972) Combination chemotherapy in the treatment of germ cell tumors containing choriocarcinoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 134: 61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gondos B, Bhiraleus P, Hobel CJ (1971) Ultrastructural observations on germ cells in human fetal ovaries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110: 644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gonzalez-Angulo A, Kaufman R, Braungardt CD, Chapman FC, Hinshaw AJ (1963) Adenocarcinoma of thyroid arising in struma ovarii (malignant struma ovarii). Report of two cases and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol 21: 567.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gonzalez-Crussi F, Roth LM (1976) The human yolk sac and yolk sac carcinoma. Hum Pathol 7: 675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gonzalez-Licea A, Hartman WH, Yardley JH (1968) Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Ultrastructural evidence of its origin from the parafollicular cell and its possible relation to carcinoid tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 49: 512Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gordon A, Lipton D, Woodruff JD (1981) Dysgerminoma: A review of 158 cases from the Emil Novak Ovarian Tumor Registry. Obstet Gynecol 58: 497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Greco MA, LiVolsi VA, Pertschuk LP, Bigelow B (1979) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary; an analysis of its components. Cancer 43: 1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Griffiths K, Grant JK, Browning NCK, Whyte WG, Sharp JL (1966) Steroid synthesis in vitro by tumor tissue from dysgenetic gonad. J Endocrinol 34: 155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Grosfeld JL, Stepita DS, Nance WE, Palmer CG (1974) Fetus-in-fetu. An unusual cause for an abdominal mass in infancy. Ann Surg 180: 80Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gusberg SB, Danforth DN (1944) Clinical significance of struma ovarii. Am J Obstet Gynecol 48: 537Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hain AM (1949) An unusual case of precocious puberty associated with ovarian dysgerminoma. J Clin Endocrinol 9: 1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hameed K, Burslem MRG (1970) A melanotic ovarian neoplasm resembling the “retinal anlage” tumor. Cancer 25: 564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hart WR, Burkons DM (1979) Germ cell neoplasms arising in gonadoblastomas. Cancer 34: 669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hart WR, Regezi JA (1978) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary. Ultrastructural observations and long-term follow-up study. Am J Clin Pathol 69: 356Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hertig AT, Adams CE (1967) Studies on the human oocyte and its follicle. 1. Ultrastructural and histochemical observations on primordial follicle stage. J Cell Biol 34: 647Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hertig AT, Gore H (1961) Tumors of the female sex organs. Part 3. Tumors of the ovary and fallopian tube. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Sec 9, Fasc 33. Washington D.C., Armed Forces Institute of PathologyGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Higuchi K, Kato T (1958) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. J Jpn Obstet Gynecol Soc 5: 206Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hingorani V, Narula RK, Bhalla S (1963) Salmonella typhi infection in an ovarian dermoid. Report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 22: 118Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hirschfield LS, Kahn LB, Winkler B, Bochner RZ, Gib-stein AA (1985) Adenocarcinoid of the appendix presenting as bilateral Krukenberg’s tumor of the ovaries. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109: 930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hou-Jensen K, Kempson RL (1974) The ultrastructure of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Hum Pathol 5: 79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hughesdon PE (1955) Two cases of struma ovarii showing the histogenesis of thyroid and thymus in ovarian teratoma. J Pathol Bacteriol 70: 35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hughesdon PE, Kumarasamy T (1970) Mixed germ cell tumors (gonadoblastomas) in normal and dysgenetic gonads. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 349: 258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Huntington RW Jr., Bullock WK (1970) Yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Cancer 25: 1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Huntington RW Jr., Bullock, WK (1970) Yolk sac tumors of extragonadal origin. Cancer 25: 1368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Huntington RW Jr., Morgenstern NL, Sargent JA, Giem RN, Richards A, Hanford KC (1963) Germinal tumors exhibiting the endodermal sinus pattern of Teilum in young children. Cancer 16: 34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ishida T, Tagatz GE, Okagaki T (1976) Gonadoblastoma. Ultrastructural evidence of testicular origin. Cancer 37: 1770Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Itoh T, Shirai T, Naka A, Matsumoto S (1974) Yolk sac tumor and alpha-fetoprotein: Clinicopathological study of four cases. Gann 65: 215Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jackson SM (1967) Ovarian dysgerminoma. Br J Radiol 40: 459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Janovski NA, Paramanandhan TL (1973) Ovarian tumors. Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the ovaries, fallopian tubes and ligaments of the uterus. Stuttgart, Georg ThiemeGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jatoi AF (1959) Dysgerminoma of the ovary (a study of 23 cases). J Postgrad Med 5: 22Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jedberg H (1949) Some clinical aspects of dysgerminoma ovarii. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 28: 194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jimerson GK, Woodruff JD (1977) Ovarian extraembryonal teratoma: 1. Endodermal sinus tumor. Am J Ob-stet Gynecol 127: 73Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jimerson GK, Woodruff JD (1977) Ovarian extraembryonal teratoma: 2. Endodermal sinus tumor mixed with other germ cell tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127: 302Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Judd HL, Scully RE, Atkins L, Neer RM, Kliman B (1970) Pure gonadal dysgenesis with progressive hirsutism. N Engl J Med 282: 881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kawahara H (1963) Struma ovarii with ascites and hydrothorax. Am J Obstet Gynecol 85: 85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kay S, Silverberg SG, Schatzki PF (1972) Ultrastructure of an ovarian dysgerminoma. Report of a case featuring neurosecretory-type granules in stromal cells. Am J Clin Pathol 58: 458Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kazancigil TR, Laquer W, Ladewig P (1940) Papilloendothelioma of the ovary; report of three cases and discussion of Schiller’s “mesonephroma ovarii.” Am J Cancer 40: 199Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kelley RR, Scully RE (1961) Cancer developing in dermoid cysts of the ovary. A report of 8 cases including a carcinoid and a leiomyosarcoma. Cancer 14: 989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    King ME, Mouradian JA, Micha JP, Chaganti RSK, Allen SL (1985) Immature teratoma of the ovary with predominant malignant retinal anlage tumor. A parthenogenetically derived tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 221Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Klein HZ (1974) Mucinous carcinoid tumor of the vermiform appendix. Cancer 33: 770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Koller O, Gjonnes H (1964) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 43: 268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Krepart G, Smith JP, Rutledge F, Declos L (1978) The treatment for dysgerminoma of the ovary. Cancer 41: 986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Krumerman MS, Chung A (1977) Squamous carcinoma arising in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary. Cancer 39: 1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1976) Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. A clinical and pathologic analysis of 71 cases. Cancer 38: 2404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1976) Embryonal carcinoma of the ovary. A clinicopathologic entity distinct from endodermal sinus tumor resembling embryonal carcinoma of the adult testis. Cancer 38: 2420Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1976) Malignant mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary. A clinical and pathologic analysis of 30 cases. Obstet Gynecol 48: 579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lange PH, Millan JL, Stigbrand T, Vessella RL, Ruoslahti E, Fishman WH (1982) Placental alkaline phosphatase as a tumor marker for seminoma. Cancer Res 42: 3244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Larson NE, Dockerty MB, Pratt JH (1958) Primary mixed choriocarcinoma and dysgerminoma of the ovary. Report of a case. Proc Mayo Clin 33: 341Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Levine GD (1973) Primary thymic seminoma-A neoplasm ultrastructurally similar to testicular seminoma and distinct from epithelial thymoma. Cancer 31: 729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Liebert KI, Stent L (1960) Dysgerminoma of the ovary with chorionepithelioma. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 77: 627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lien L (1979) Determination of serum AFP for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Zhonghua Fuchanke Zazhi 14: 22 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Linder D (1969) Gene loss in human teratomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63: 699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Linder D, Power J (1970) Further evidence for postmeiotic origin of teratomas in the human female. Ann Hum Genet 34: 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Linder D, McCaw BK, Hecht F (1975) Parthenogenic origin of benign ovarian teratoma. N Engl J Med 292: 63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lingeman CH (1974) Etiology of cancer of the human ovary. A review. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Livnat EJ, Scommegna A, Recant W, Jao W (1977) Ultra-structural observations of the so-called strumal carcinoid of the ovary. Arch Pathol Lab Med 101: 585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lord JM (1956) Intra-abdominal foetus in fetu. J Pathol Bacteriol 72: 627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lynn JA, Varon HH, Kingsley WB, Martin JH (1967) Ultrastructure and biochemical studies of estrogen-secreting capacity of a “non-functional” ovarian neoplasm (dysgerminoma). Am J Pathol 51: 639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mackay AM, Pattigrew N, Symington T, Neville AM (1974) Tumors of dysgenetic gonads (gonadoblastoma). Ultrastructural and steroidogenic aspects. Cancer 34: 1108Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    McCullough CD, Hardart F (1963) Neuroblastomatous transformation in a benign cystic teratoma. Obstet Gynecol 21: 259Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    McDonough PG, Byrd JR, Tho PT, Otken L (1976) Gona-doblastoma in a true hermaphrodite with 46XX karyotype. Obstet Gynecol 47: 355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    McDonough PG, Greenblatt RB, Byrd JR, Hastings EV (1967) Gonadoblastoma (gonocytoma III). Report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 29: 54Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    McKay DG, Hertig AT, Adams EC, Danziger S (1953) Histochemical observations on the germ cells of human embryos. Anat Rec 117: 201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    McKay DG, Pinkerton JHM, Hertig AT, Danziger S (1961) The adult human ovary: A histochemical study. Obstet Gynecol 18: 13Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Malkasian GD Jr., Symmonds RE (1964) Treatment of the unilateral encapsulated germinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 90: 379Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Malkasian GD Jr., Dockerty MB, Symmonds RE (1967) Benign cystic teratomas. Obstet Gynecol 29: 719Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Malkasian GD Jr., Symmonds RE, Dockerty MB (1965) Malignant ovarian teratomas. Report of 31 cases. Obstet Gynecol 25: 810Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Malkasian GD Jr., Webb MJ, Jorgensen EO (1974) Observations on chemotherapy of granulosa cell carcinoma and malignant ovarian teratoma. Obstet Gynecol 44: 885Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Marcial-Rojas RA, de Arellano RGA (1956) Malignant melanoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary. Cancer 9: 523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Marin-Padilla M (1965) Origin, nature and significance of the “embryoids” of human teratomas. Virchow’s Arch [Pathol Anat] 340: 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Marrubini G (1949) Primary chorionepithelioma of the ovary. Report of two cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 28: 251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Masson P (1912) Seminomes ovariennes. Bull Soc Anat (Paris) 87: 402Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Masson P (1923) Epitheliomas pflügeriens. In: Diagnostics de laboratoire. Les tumeurs. Paris, MaloineGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mathieu J, Planchu M (1950) Le prognostic et le traitement du seminome de l’ovaire. Les oestrogenes out-ils place dans le traitement du seminome en general? Lyon Chir 45: 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Matz MH (1961) Benign cystic teratomas of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol Sury 16: 591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Melicow MM, Uson AC (1959) Dysgenetic gonadomas and other gonadal neoplasms in intersex. Cancer 12: 552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Meyer R (1931) The pathology of some special ovarian tumors and their relation to sex characteristics. Am J Obstet Gynecol 22: 697Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Miettinen M, Virtanen I, Talerman A (1985) Intermediate filament proteins in human testis and testicular germ-cell tumors. Am J Pathol 120: 402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Miettinen M, Talerman A, Wahlstrom T, Astengo-Osuna C, Virtanen I (1985) Cellular differentiation in ovarian sex cord-stromal and germ-cell tumors studied with antibodies to intermediate-filament proteins. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Moertel CG, Beahrs OH, Woolner LB, Tyce GM (1965) “Malignant carcinoid syndrome” associated with noncarcinoid tumors. N Engl J Med 273: 244Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mueller CW, Topkins P, Lapp WA (1950) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. An analysis of427 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 60: 153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Neigus I (1952) Ovarian dysgerminoma with chorionepithelioma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 64: 422Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Neubecker RD, Breen JL (1962) Embryonal carcinoma of the ovary. Cancer 15: 546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Nielsen SNJ, Scheithauer BW, Gaffey TA (1985) Gliomatosis peritonei. Cancer 56: 2499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Nieminen I, Von Numers C, Widholm O (1964) Struma ovarii. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 42: 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Nogales FF Jr, Matilla A, Nogales-Ortiz F, Calera-Davidson HL (1978) Yolk sac tumors with pure and mixed poly-vesicular vitelline patterns. Hum Pathol 9: 553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Nogales FF Jr, Silverberg SG, Bloustein PA, Martinez-Hernandez A, Pierce GB (1977) Yolk sac carcinoma (endodermal sinus tumor). Ultrastructure and histogenesis of gonadal and extragonadal tumors in comparison with normal human yolk sac. Cancer 39: 1462Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Norgaard-Pedersen B, Albrechtsen R, Teilum G (1975) Serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor), or a vitelline component of teratocarcinoma. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand (A) 83: 573Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Norris HJ, Jensen RD (1972) Relative frequency of ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Cancer 30: 713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Norris HJ, Zirkin HJ, Benson WL (1976) Immature (malignant) teratoma of the ovary. A clinical and pathologic study of 58 cases. Cancer 37: 2359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Novak E (1952) Gynecologic and obstetric pathology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, SaundersGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Novak E, Gray LA (1938) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 35: 925Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Novak E, Woodruff JD, Novak ER (1954) Probable mesonephric origin of certain female genital tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 68: 1224Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Novak ER (1948) Solid teratoma of the ovary, with report of five cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 56: 300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Novak ER, Woodruff JD (1967) In: Novak ER (ed) Gynecologic and obstetric pathology, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Saunders, p 367Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nystrom C (1956) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Acta Ob-stet Gynecol Scand 35: 385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Oliver HM, Home EO (1948) Primary teratomatous chorionepithelioma of the ovary. Report of a case. N Engl J Med 239: 14Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Overbeck L, Philipp E (1969) Die Ultrastruktur des Disgerminoms im Ovar. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Histogenese des Tumors. Z Geburtschilfe Gynaekol 170: 125Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Palmer PE, Safaii H, Wolfe HJ (1976) Alpha-l-antitrypsin and alpha-fetoprotein markers in endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 65: 575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Pantoja E, Noy MA, Axtmayer RW, Colon FE, Pelegrina I (1975) Ovarian dermoids and their complications. Comprehensive historical review. Obstet Gynecol Sury 30: 1Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Pantoja E, Rodriguez-Ibanez I, Axtmayer RW, Noy MA, Pelegrina I (1975) Complications of dermoid tumors of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 45: 89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Park IJ, Pyeatte JC, Jones HW, Woodruff JD (1972) Gonadoblastoma in a true hermaphrodite with 46XY genotype. Obstet Gynecol 40: 466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Patel SK, Prentice SA (1972) Gonadoblastoma-Distinctive ovarian tumor. Arch Pathol 94: 165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Payne D, Muss HB, Homesley HD, Jobson VM, Baird FG (1981) Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and ovarian dermoid cysts. Case report and review of the literature. Cancer 48: 721Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pedowitz P, Felmus LB, Grayzel DM (1955) Dysgerminoma of the ovary. Prognosis and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 70: 1284Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Peterson WF (1956) Solid histologically benign teratomas of the ovary. A report of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 72: 1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Peterson WF (1957) Malignant degeneration of benign cystic teratomas of the ovary: A collective review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Sury 12: 793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Peterson WF, Prevost EC, Edmunds FT, Huntley JM Jr., Morris FK (1955) Benign cystic teratomas of the ovary. A clinico-statistical study of 1007 cases with review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 70: 368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Peyron A (1939) Faits nouveaux relatifs à l’origine et à l’histogenese des embryomes. Bull Assoc Franc Cancer 28: 658Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pierce GB Jr. (1966) Ultrastructure of human testicular tumors. Cancer 19: 1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Pierce, GB Jr., Dixon FJ (1959) Testicular teratomas. 1. Demonstration of teratogenesis by metamorphosis of multipotential cells. Cancer 12: 573Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pierce GB Jr., Dixon FJ (1959) Testicular teratomas. 2. Teratocarcinoma as ascitic tumor. Cancer 12: 584Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Pierce GB Jr., Midgley AR (1963) The origin and function of human syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells. Am J Pathol 43: 153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Pierce GB Jr., Verney EL (1961) An in vitro and in vivo study of differentiation in teratocarcinomas. Cancer 14: 1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Pierce GB Jr., Bullock WK, Huntington RW Jr. (1970) Yolk sac tumors of the testis. Cancer 25: 644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Pierce GB Jr., Midgley AR, Beals TF (1962) An ultrastructural study of differentiation and maturation of trophoblast of the monkey. Lab Invest 13: 451Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Pierce GB Jr., Midgley AR, Sri Ram J, Feldman JD (1964) Parietal yolk sac carcinoma. Clue to the histogenesis of Reichert’s membrane of the mouse embryo. Am J Pathol 41: 549Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Plaut A (1933) Ovarian struma: A morphologic, pharmacologic, and biologic examination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 25: 351Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Prat J, Bhan AK, Dickersin GR, Robboy SJ, Scully RE (1982) Hepatoid yolk sac tumor of the ovary (endodermal sinus tumor with hepatoid differentiation). A light microscopic ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of seven cases. Cancer 50: 2355Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Qizilbash AH, Trebilcock RG, Patterson MC, Lamont KG (1974) Functioning primary carcinoid tumor of the ovary. A light and electron microscopic study with review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 62: 629Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ramsey HJ (1965) Ultrastructure of a pineal tumor. Cancer 18: 1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Ranchod M, Kempson RL, Dorgeloh JR (1976) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary. Cancer 37: 1913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rao NR, Veliath GD, Srinivasan M (1964) An unusual case of sacrococcygeal mesonephroma ( Schiller ). Cancer 17: 1604Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rashad MH, Fathalla MF, Kerr MC (1966) Sex chromatin and chromosome analysis in ovarian teratomas. Am J Ob-stet Gynecol 96: 461Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Robboy SJ, Scully RE (1970) Ovarian teratoma with glial implants on the peritoneum. An analysis of 12 cases. Hum Pathol 1: 643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Robboy SJ, Scully RE (1980) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary. An analysis of 50 cases of a distinctive tumor composed of thyroid tissue and carcinoid. Cancer 46: 2019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Robboy SJ, Norris HJ, Scully RE (1975) Insular carcinoid primary in the ovary-A clinicopathologic analysis of 48 cases. Cancer 36: 404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Robboy SJ, Scully RE, Norris HJ (1974) Carcinoid metastatic to the ovary. A clinicopathologic analysis of 35 cases. Cancer 33: 798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Robboy SJ, Scully RE, Norris HJ (1977) Primary trabecular carcinoid of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 49: 202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Rose LI, Underwood RH, Williams GH, Pincus GS (1974) Pure gonadal dysgenesis. Studies of in vitro androgen metabolism. Am J Med 57: 957Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sailer S (1940) Ovarian dysgerminoma. Am J Cancer 38: 473Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Sailer S (1943) Struma ovarii. Am J Clin Pathol 13: 271Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Salet J, de Gennes LJ, de Grouchy J, Musset R, Pelissier C, Yaneva H, Sebaoun M, Netter A (1970) A propos d’un cas de gonadoblastome 46XX. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 31: 927Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Samuels ML, Lanzotti VJ, Holoye PY, Boyle LY, Smith TL, Johnson DE (1976) Combination chemotherapy of germinal cell tumors. Cancer Treat Rev 3: 185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Santesson L (1947) Clinical and pathological survey of ovarian tumours treated at the Radiumhemmet. 1. Dysgerminoma. Acta Radiol (Stockholm) 28: 643Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Santesson L, Marrubini G (1957) Clinical and pathological survey of ovarian embryonal carcinomas, including so-called “mesonephreomas” (Schiller) or “mesoblastomas” ( Teilum) treated at the Radiumhemmet. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 36: 399Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Saunders AM, Hertzman VO (1960) Malignant carcinoid teratoma of the ovary. Can Med Assoc J 83: 602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Schellhas HF (1974) Malignant potential of the dysgenetic gonad. Part 1. Obstet Gynecol 44: 298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Schellhas HF (1974) Malignant potential of the dysgenetic gonad. Part 2. Obstet Gynecol 44: 455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Schellhas HF, Trujillo JM, Rutledge FN, Cork A (1971) Germ cell tumors associated with XY gonadal dysgenesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 109: 1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Schiller W (1939) Mesonephroma ovarii. Am J Cancer 35: 1Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Schiller W (1942) Histogenesis of ovarian mesonephroma. Arch Pathol 33: 443Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Schmitz EF (1925) Malignant endothelioma of perithelioma type in the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 9: 247Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Scully RE (1953) Gonadoblastoma. A gonadal tumor related to dysgerminoma (seminoma) and capable of sex hormone production. Cancer 6: 455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Scully RE (1963) Germ cell tumors of the ovary and Fallopian tube. In: Meigs JV, Sturgis SH (eds) Progress in gynecology, Vol 4. New York, Grime and Stratton, pp 335–347Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Scully RE (1970) Germ cell tumors of the ovary. In: Sturgis SH, Taymor ML (eds) Progress in gynecology, Vol 5. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 329–348Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Scully RE (1970) Recent progress in ovarian cancer. Hum Pathol 1: 73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Scully RE (1970) Gonadoblastoma. Cancer 25: 1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Scully RE (1970) Sex cord tumor with annular tubules. A distinctive ovarian tumor of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Cancer 25: 1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Scully RE (1979) Tumors of the ovary and maldeveloped gonads. In: Atlas of tumor pathology, 2nd series, Fasc 16. Washington, D.C., Armed Forces Institute of PathologyGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Scully RE (1980) Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Seegar GE (1938) Ovarian dysgerminomas. Arch Surg 37: 697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Sell A, Sogaard H, Norgaard-Pedersen B (1976) Serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for the effects of postoperative radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy in 8 cases of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Int J Cancer 18: 574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Sens MA, Levenson TB, Metcalf JS (1982) A case of metastatic carcinoid arising in an ovarian teratoma. Cancer 49: 2541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Senterman MK, Cassidy PN, Fenoglio CM, Ferenczy A (1984) Histology, ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry of strumal carcinoid. A case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3: 232Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Serov SF, Scully RE, Sobin LH (1973) Histological typing of ovarian tumors. International histological classification of tumors. No 9. Geneva, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Serratoni FT, Robboy SJ (1975) Ultrastructure of primary and metastatic ovarian carcinoids-Analysis of 11 cases. Cancer 36: 157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Shirai T, Itoh T, Yoshiki T, Noro T, Tomino Y, Hayasaka T (1976) Immunofluorescent demonstration of alpha-fetoprotein, and other plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor. Cancer 38: 1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Sjovall A (1943) Disgerminome des Ovariums. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 23: 585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Simard LC (1957) Polyembryonic embryoma of the ovary of parthenogenetic origin. Cancer 10: 215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Smith FG (1946) Pathology and physiology of struma ovarii. Arch Surg 53: 603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Smith JB, O’Neill RT (1971) Alpha-fetoprotein. Occurrence in germinal cell and liver malignancies. Am J Med 51: 767Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Smith JP, Rutledge F (1975) Advances in chemotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Cancer 36: 669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Smith JP, Rutledge FN, Sutow WW (1963) Malignant gynecologic tumors in children. Current approaches to treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 261Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Solomon J, Steinfeld JL, Bateman JR (1967) Chemotherapy of germinal tumors. Cancer 26: 747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Sporrong B, Falkmer S, Robboy SJ, Alumets J, Hakanson R, Ljungberg O, Sundler F (1982) Neurohormonal peptides in ovarian carcinoids. An immunohistochemical study of 81 primary carcinoids and of intraovarian metastases from six midgut carcinoids. Cancer 49: 68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Sternberg WH, Barclay DL, Kloepfer HW (1968) Familial XY gonadal dysgenesis. N Engl J Med 278: 695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Stevens LC (1959) Embryology of testicular teratomas in strain 129 mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 23: 1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Stevens LC (1960) Embryonic potency of embryoid bodies derived from a transplantable testicular teratoma of the mouse. Develop Biol 2: 285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Stevens LC (1962) The biology of teratomas including evidence indicating their origin from primordial germ cells. Ann Biol 1: 585Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Strauss AF, Gates HS (1964) Giant sebaceous gland tumor of the ovary. Am J Clin Pathol 41: 78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Subbuswamy SG, Gibbs NM, Ross CF, Morson BC (1974) Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix. Cancer 34: 338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Szokol M, Kondrai G, Papp, Z (1977) Gonadal malignancy and 46XY karyotype in a true hermaphrodite. Obstet Gynecol 49: 358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Takeda A, Ishizuka T, Goto T, Goto S, Ohta M, Tomoda Y, Hoshino M (1982) Polyembryoma of ovary producing alpha-fetoprotein and HCG. Immunoperoxidase and electron microscopic study. Cancer 49: 1878Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Talerman A (1971) Gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma in two siblings with dysgenetic gonads. Obstet Gynecol 38: 416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Talerman A (1972) A distinctive gonadal neoplasm related to gonadoblastoma. Cancer 30: 1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Talerman A (1972) A mixed germ cell-sex cord stroma tumor in a normal female infant. Obstet Gynecol 40: 473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Talerman A (1974) Gonadoblastoma associated with embryonal carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 43: 138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Talerman A (1975) The incidence of yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) elements in germ cell tumors of the testis in adults. Cancer 36: 211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Talerman A (1980) The pathology of gonadal neoplasms composed of germ cells and sex cord stroma derivatives. Pathol Res Pract 170: 24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Talerman A (1984) Carcinoid tumors of the ovary. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 107: 125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Talerman A, Delemarre JFM (1975) Gonadoblastoma associated with embryonal carcinoma in an anatomically normal male. J Urol 113: 355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Talerman A, Evans MI (1982) Primary trabecular carcinoid tumor of the ovary. Cancer 50: 1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Talerman A, Haije WG (1974) Alpha-fetoprotein and germ cell tumors. A possible role of yolk sac tumor in production of alpha-fetoprotein. Cancer 34: 1722Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Talerman A, Haije WG (1985) Ovarian Sertoli cell tumor with retiform and heterologous elements. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Talerman A, Okagaki T (1985) Ultrastructural features of primary trabecular carcinoid tumor of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4: 153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Talerman A, Okagaki T (unpublished observations)Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Talerman A, van der Harten JJ (1977) A mixed germ cell-sex cord stroma tumor of the ovary associated with isosexual precocious puberty in a normal female child. Cancer 40: 889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Talerman A, Haije WG, Baggerman L (1977) Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in sera of patients with germ cell neoplasms. Value as tumor markers in patients with endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour). Int J Cancer 19: 741Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Talerman A, Haije WG, Baggerman L (1978) Histological patterns in germ cell neoplasms associated with raised serum alphafoetoprotein (AFP). Scand J Immunol 8 [Suppl]: 97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Talerman A, Haije WG, Baggerman L (1978) Serum alphafetoprotein in diagnosis and management of endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor and mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary. Cancer 41: 272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Talerman A, Haije WG, Baggerman L (1980) Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) in patients with germ cell tumors of the gonads and extragonadal sites. Correlation between endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor and raised serum AFP. Cancer 46: 340Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Talerman A, Huyzinga WT, Kuipers T (1973) Dysgerminoma. Clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Obstet Gynecol 41: 137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Talerman A, Jarabak J, Amarose A (1981) Gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma in a true hermaphrodite with 46,XX karyotype. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140: 175Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Talerman A, van der Pompe WB, Haije WG, Baggerman L, Boekestein-Tjahjadi HM (1977) Alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in germ cell neoplasms. Br J Cancer 35: 288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Taylor CW (1972) Müllerian mixed tumor. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [80A Suppl] 233: 48Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Taylor MH, Depetrillo AD, Turner AR (1985) Vinblastine, bleomycin, and cisplatin in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Cancer 56: 1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Teilmann I, Kassis H, Pietra G (1967) Primary germ cell tumour of the anterior mediastium with features of endodermal sinus tumour (mesoblastoma vitellinum). Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 70: 267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Teilum G (1944) Homologous tumours in ovary and testis: Contribution to classification of gonadal tumours. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 24: 480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Teilum G (1946) Gonocytoma; homologous ovarian and testicular tumours. 1. With discussion of “mesonephroma ovarii” (Schiller: Am J Cancer 1939). Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 23: 242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Teilum G (1950) “mesonephroma ovarii” (Schiller) extra-embryonic mesoblastoma of germ cell origin in ovary and testis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 27: 249Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Teilum G (1952) Classification of ovarian tumours. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 31: 292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Teilum G (1959) Endodermal sinus tumors of the ovary and testis. Comparative morphogenesis of the so-called mesonephroma ovarii (Schiller) and extraembryonic (yolk sac-allantoic) structures of the rat’s placenta. Cancer 12: 1092Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Teilum G (1965) Classification of endodermal sinus tumour (mesoblastoma vitellinum) and so-called embryonal carcinoma of the ovary. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 64: 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Teilum G (1968) Tumours of germinal origin. In: Gentil F, Junqueira AC (eds) Ovarian cancer, U.I. C. C. Monograph Series, Vol 11. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-Verlag, pp 58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Teilum G (1976) Special tumors of the ovary and testis. Comparative histology and identification, 2nd ed. Copenhagen, MunksgaardGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Teilum G, Albrechtsen R, Norgaard-Pedersen B (1974) Immunofluorescent localization of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 82A: 586Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Teilum G, Albrechtsen R, Norgaard-Pedersen B (1975) The histogenetic-embryologic basis for reappearance of alpha-fetoprotein in endodermal sinus tumors and teratomas. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 83A: 80Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Teter J (1960) A new concept of classification of gonadal tumors arising from germ cell (gonocytoma) and their histogenesis. Gynaecologia (Basel) 150: 84Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Teter J (1962) A mixed form of feminizing germ cell tumor (gonocytoma II). Am J Obstet Gynecol 84: 722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Teter J (1970) Prognosis, malignancy and curability of the germ cell tumor occurring in dysgenetic gonads. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108: 894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Teter J, Boczkowski K (1967) Occurrence of tumors in dysgenetic gonads. Cancer 20: 1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Theiss EA, Ashley DJB, Mostofi FK (1959) Nuclear sex of testicular tumors and some related ovarian and extragonadal neoplasms. Cancer 13: 323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Thoeny RH, Dockerty MB, Hunt AB, Childs DS Jr. (1961) Study of ovarian dysgerminoma with emphasis on the role of radiation therapy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 113: 692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Thurlbeck WM, Scully RE (1960) Solid teratoma of the ovary. Cancer 13: 804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Toker C (1969) Ovarian carcinoid. A light and electron microscopic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 103: 1019Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Tsuchida Y, Kaneko M, Yokomori K, Saito S, Urano Y, Endo Y, Asaka T, Takeuchi T (1978) Alpha-fetoprotein, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin as diagnostic and therapeutic markers for endodermal sinus tumors. J Pediatr Surg 13: 25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Turner HB, Douglas WM, Cladding TC (1964) Choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 24: 918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Ueda G, Sato Y, Yamasaki M, Inoue M, Hiramatsu J, Kurachi K, Amino N, Miyai K (1978) Strumal carcinoid of the ovary. Histological, ultrastructural, and immunohistological studies with anti-human thyroglobulin. Gynecol Oncol 6: 411Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Ulbright TM, Roth LM, Erlich CE (1982) Ovarian strumal carcinoid. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol 77: 622Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Uzisima H (1956) Ovarian dysgerminoma associated with virilization. Report of a case. Cancer 9: 736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Vance RP, Geisinger KR (1985) Pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Report of a case. Cancer 56: 2321Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Vawter GF (1965) Carcinoma of the vagina in infancy. Cancer 18: 1479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Warkel RL, Cooper PH, Helwig EB (1978) Adenocarcinoid, a mucin-producing carcinoid of the appendix. Cancer 42: 2781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Weldon-Linne CM, Rushovich AM (1983) Benign ovarian cystic teratomas with homunculi. Obstet Gynecol 61: 88SGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Wheatley VR (1957) Further observations on the nature of the dermoid cyst fat. J Invest Dermatol 29: 445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Whelton JA, Fallôn RJ (1964) Successful pregnancy after surgery and supervoltage therapy for metastatic dysgerminoma. N Engl J Med 271: 145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Wider JA, O’Leary JA (1968) Dysgerminoma: A clinical review. Obstet Gynecol 31: 560Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Wider JA, Marshall JR, Bardin CW, Lipsett MB, Rose GT (1969) Sustained remissions after chemotherapy for primary ovarian cancers containing choriocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 280: 1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Wieland RG, Ekstrom B, Vorijs N (1968) C19O2 Steroid secretion by dysgenetic gonads. Obstet Gynecol 32: 643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Wilkinson EJ, Friedrich EG, Hosty TA (1973) Alpha-fetoprotein and endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Williams ED (1966) Histogenesis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. J Clin Pathol 19: 114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Williams ED, Sandler M (1963) Classification of carcinoid by embryologic grouping. Lancet 1: 238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Williamson HO, Underwood PB Jr, Kreutner A Jr, Rogers JF, Mathur RS, Pratt-Thomas HR (1976) Gonadoblastoma: Clinicopathologic correlation in six patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126: 579Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Willis RA (1958) The borderland of embryology and pathology. London, ButterworthGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Willis RA (1967) Pathology of tumours, 4th ed. London, ButterworthGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Wisniewski M, Deppisch LM (1973) Solid teratomas of the ovary. Cancer 32: 440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Witschi E (1948) Migration of the germ cells of human embryos from the yolk sac to the primitive gonadal folds. Contrib Embryol 32: 69Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Woodruff JD, Markley RL (1957) Struma ovarii. Demon-stration of both pathologic change and physiologic activity; report of four cases. Obstet Gynecol 9: 707Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Woodruff JD, Protos P, Peterson WF (1968) Ovarian teratomas. Relationship of histologic and ontogenic factors to prognosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102: 702Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Woodruff JD, Rauh JT, Markley RL (1966) Ovarian struma. Obstet Gynecol 27: 194Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Wurster K, Hedinger C, Meienberg 0 (1972) Orchioblastomatous foci in testicular teratoma of adults. Virchow’s Arch [Pathol Anat] 357: 231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1983) Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with a retiform pattern. A problem in histopathologic diagnosis. A report of 25 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 7: 755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Young RH, Perez-Atayde AR, Scully RE (1984) Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with retiform and heterologous elements. Report of a case with hepatocytic differentiation and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein. Am J Surg Pathol 8: 709Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Young RH, Prat J, Scully RE (1982) Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with heterologous elements (1) gastrointestinal epithelium and carcinoid: A clinicopathologic analysis of thirty six cases. Cancer 50: 2448Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Zaloudek C, Tavassoli FA, Norris HJ (1981) Dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells. A histologically and clinically distinctive subtype of dysgerminoma. Am J Surg Pathol 5: 361Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Zondag HA (1964) Enzyme activity in dysgerminoma and seminoma. A study of lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in malignant diseases. Rhode Island Med J 47: 273PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Talerman
  • F. R. C. Path

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations