The Potential Field Approach And Operational Space Formulation In Robot Control

  • Oussama Khatib


The paper presents a radically new approach to real-time dynamic control and active force control of manipulators. In this approach the manipulator control problem is reformulated in terms of direct control of manipulator motion in operational space, the space in which the task is originally described, rather than controlling the task’s corresponding joint space motion obtained after geometric and kinematic transformation. The control method is based on the construction of the manipulator end effector dynamic model in operational space. Also, the paper presents a unique real-time obstacle avoidance method for manipulators and mobile robots based on the “artificial potential field” concept. In this method, collision avoidance, traditionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control, allowing real-time robot operations in a complex environment. Using a time-varying artificial potential field, this technique has been extended to moving obstacles. A two-level control architecture has been designed to increase the system real-time performance. These methods have been implemented in the COSMOS system for a PUMA 560 robot arm. We have demonstrated compliance, contact, sliding, and insertion operations using wrist and finger sensing, as well as real-time collision avoidance with moving obstacles using visual sensing.


Mobile Robot Collision Avoidance Obstacle Avoidance Artificial Potential Field Active Force Control 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oussama Khatib
    • 1
  1. 1.Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryStanford UniversityUSA

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