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Shamanism in a Contemporary Medical System: The Okinawan Case

  • William P. Lebra

Abstract

The island of Okinawa lies midway astride the Ryukyu Archipelago, halfway between the main islands of Japan and Taiwan (Formosa). Prior to 1879 when the King was removed and permanently exiled to Japan, the region had experienced a socio-political development quite different from that of Japan, with a distinct language and social institutions. The area is not well endowed in natural resources and is heavily populated. Since annexation the Japanese government has striven to modernize and assimilate Okinawa. These efforts have been handicapped, until quite recently by physical isolation from mainland Japan, by the Battle for Okinawa in World War II which devastated the island further impoverishing everyone, and by a lengthy period of U.S. Military Government extending from 1945 to 1972.

Keywords

National Health Insurance Male Household Head Ryukyu Archipelago Distinct Language Ultimate Causality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. Kleinman, A, 1980, “Patients and Healers in the Context of Culture, ” University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  2. Lebra, W. P., 1964, The Okinawan shaman, in: “Ryukyuan Culture and Society: A Survey, ” A. H. Smith, ed., University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • William P. Lebra
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HawaiiUSA

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