Carcinoma and Other Malignant Tumors of the Cervix

  • Alex Ferenczy


The concept of microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix was first introduced in 1947 by Mestwerdt.78 Microinvasive carcinoma (MICA) is considered a preclinical stage in the progressive spectrum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and frank clinical invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri. It is classified as clinical stage Ia according to the 1974 FIGO (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians) staging of carcinoma of the cervix (Table 9.1). Because the lesion cannot be visualized on gross inspection, the diagnosis is based on histologic examination of cervical tissue.


Obstet Gynecol Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Uterine Cervix Stromal Invasion Cervix Uterus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abell MR (1973) Invasive carcinomas of uterine cervix. In The Uterus, Norris HJ, Hertig AT, Abell MR, (eds.) Internatl. Acad. Path. Monogr. Baltimore, The Williams and Wilkins Co., pp 413–456Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abell MR, Ramirez JA (1973) Sarcomas and carcinosarcomas of the uterine cervix. Cancer 31: 176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albores-Saavedra J, Larraza O, Poucell S; Rodriguez-Martinez HA (1976) Carcinoid of the uterine cervix. Additional observation on a new tumor entity. Cancer 38: 2328–2342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aurelian L, Schumann B, Marcus RL, Davis HJ (1973) Antibody to HSV-2 induced tumor specific antigens in serums from patients with cervical carcinoma. Science 181: 161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barron BA, Cahill MC, Richart RM (1978) A statistical model of the natural history of cervical neoplastic disease: The duration of carcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol 6: 196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benson WL, Norris HJ (1977) A critical review of the frequency of lymph node metastasis and death from microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 49: 632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berdjis CC (1971) Pathology of Irradiation, 1st ed. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berkowitz RS, Ehrmann RL, Lavizzo-Mourey R, Knapp RC (1979) Invasive cervical carcinoma in young women. Gynecol Oncol 8: 311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berthelot P, Benhamon JP, Fauvert R (1961) Hy-percorticisme et cancer de l’utérus. Nouv Presse Med 69: 1899–1902Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bohm JW, Krupp PJ, Lee FYL, Batson HWK (1976) Lymph node metastasis in microinvasive epidermoid cancer of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 48: 65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boronow RC, Averette HE, Nelson JH Jr., Richart RM, Townsend DE (1975) Defining cervical microinvasive carcinoma. Contemp Obstet Gynecol 5: 121Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyes, DA, Worth AJ, Fidler HK (1970) The results of treatment of 4389 cases of preclinical squamous carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Brit Commonw 77: 769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burghart E, Holzer E (1977) Diagnosis and treatment of microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 49: 641Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campos JL (1971) Mortality trends in carcinoma of the cervix uteri. J Chronic Dis 24: 701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castaldo TW, Ballon SC, Lagasse LD, Petrilli ES (1979) Reticuloendothelial neoplasia of the female genital tract. Obstet Gynecol 54: 167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherry CP, Glücksmann A (1955) Lymphatic embolism and lymph node metastasis in cancers of vulva and of uterine cervix. Cancer 8: 564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chorlton I, Karnei RF Jr., King FM, Norris HJ (1974) Primary malignant reticuloendothelial disease involving the vagina, cervix, and corpus uteri. Obstet Gynecol 44: 735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Christopherson WM, Nealon N, Gray LA, Sr (1979) Noninvasive precursor lesions of adenocarcinoma and mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cancer 44: 975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Christopherson WM, Parker JE (1964) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix; a clinical-pathological study. Cancer 17: 1123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cid JM (1959) La pigmentation mélanique de l’en-docervix. Un argument viscéral “neurogénique.” Ann Anat Pathol 4: 617Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coppleson M (1970) The origin and nature of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix uteri. Int J Gynecol Obstet 8:539Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coppleson LW, Brown B (1975) Observations on a model of the biology of carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 122: 127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cramer DW (1974) The role of cervical cytology in the declining morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. Cancer 34: 2018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cramer DW, Cutler SJ (1974) Incidence and histo-pathology of malignancies of the female genital organs in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 118: 443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Creasman WT, Rutledge F, Fletcher GH (1970) Carcinoma of the cervix associated with pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 36: 495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davis JR, Moon LB (1975) Increased incidence of adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 45: 79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Demian SDE, Bushkin FL, Echevarria RA (1973) Perineural invasion and anaplastic transformation of verrucous carcinoma. Cancer 32: 395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Petrillo AD, Townsend DE, Morrow CP, Lickrish GM, Di Saia PJ, Roy M (1975) Colposcopic evaluation of the abnormal Papanicolaou test in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 441Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Diddle AW (1972) Carcinoma of the cervix uteri with metastases to the neck. Cancer 29: 453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Di Saia PJ, Haverbeck BJ, Dyce BJ, Morrow CP (1975) Carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 159Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dougherty CM, Cotten N (1964) Mixed squamous-cell and adenocarcinoma of the cervix; combined, adenosquamous, and mucoepidermoid types. Cancer 17: 1132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dudan RC, Yon JL, Ford JH, Averette HE (1973) Carcinoma of the cervix and pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 1: 283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fennell RH, Jr (1978) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol Surv 33: 406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1974) Female Reproductive System. Dynamics of Scan and Transmission Electron Microscopy, 1st ed. New York, John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fidler HK, Boyes DA, Worth AJ (1968) Cervical cancer detection in British Columbia. J Obstet Gynaecol Brit Commonw 75: 392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Forsberg JG (1972) Estrogen, vaginal cancer, and vaginal development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 113: 83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gallup DG, Abell MR (1977) Invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 49: 596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gardner HL, Parsons L (1962) Blood vessel invasion in cancer of the cervix. Cancer 15: 1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gilbert EF, Palladino A (1966) Squamous papillomas of the uterine cervix: review of the literature and report of a giant papillary carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 46: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Glücksmann A, Cherry CP (1956) Incidence, histology and response to radiation of mixed carcinomas (ade-noacanthomas) of the uterine cervix. Cancer 9: 971–979CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Glücksmann A, Spear FG (1945) The qualitative and quantitative histological examination of biopsy material from patients treated by radiation for carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Brit J Radiol 18: 313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goellner JR (1976) Carcinoma of the cervix. Clin-icopathologic correlation of 196 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 66: 775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Graham J, Graham R, Hirabayaski K (1968) Recurrent cancer of the cervix uteri. Surg Gynecol Obstet 126: 799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Graham S, Priore R, Graham M, Browne R, Burnett W, West D (1979) Genital cancer in wives of penile cancer patients. Cancer 44: 1870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Habib A, Kaneko M, Cohen CJ, Walker G (1979) Carcinoid of the uterine cervix. A case report with light and electron microscopic studies. Cancer 43: 535–538Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Halpin TF, Frick HC, Munnell EW (1972) Critical points of failure in the therapy of cancer of the cervix: a reappraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hameed K (1968) Clear cell “mesonephric” carcinoma of uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 32: 564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hart WR, Norris HJ (1972) Cervix adenocarcinoma of mesonephric type. Cancer 29: 106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hepler TK, Dockerty MB, Randall LM (1952) Primary adenocarcinoma of cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Herbst AL, Cole P, Norusis MJ, Welch WR, Scully RE (1979) Epidemiologic aspects and factors related to survival in 384 Registry cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hoskins WJ, Averette HE, Ng ABP, Yon JL (1979) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix uteri: Report of six cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 7: 371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hurt WG, Silverberg SG, Frable WJ, Belgrad R, Crooks LD (1977) Adenocarcinoma of the cervix: histopathologic and clinical features. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129: 304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jones WH, Droegemueller W, Makowski ELA (1971) A primary melanocarcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 111: 959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jones HW, Plymate S, Gluck FB, Miles PA, Greene JF (1976) Small cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma of the cervix associated with ACTH production. Cancer 38: 1629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kagan AR, Nussbaum H, Chan P, Ziel HK (1973) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 117: 464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kanbour AI, Klionsky B, Murphy AI (1974) Carcinoma of the vagina following cervical cancer. Cancer 34: 1838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ketcham AS, Hoye RC, Taylor PT, Deckers PJ, Thomas LB, Chretien PB (1971) Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer 28: 1272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kiang DT, Bauer GE, Kennedy BT (1973) Immu-noassayable insulin in carcinoma of the cervix associated with hypoglycemia. Cancer 31: 801CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kirk ME (1974) Carcinoma of the cervix, stage Ia. Human Pathol 5: 253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kolbenstvedt A, Kolstad P (1974) Pelvic lymph node dissection under peroperative lymphographic control. Gynecol Oncol 2: 39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Koss LG, Brannan CD, Ashikari R (1970) Histologic and ultrastructural features of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Cancer 26: 1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Krauss FT (1973) Irradiation changes in the uterus. In The Uterus, Norris HJ, Hertig AT, Abell MR, (eds). Internatl Acad Pathol Monograph. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co., pp 457–488.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krauss FT, Perez-Mesa C (1966) Verrucous carcinoma. Cancer 19: 26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kyriakos M, Kempson RL, Perez CA (1971) Carcinoma of the cervix in young women. Obstet Gynecol 38: 930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lathrop JC (1967) Views and reviews: Malignant pelvic lymphomas. Obstet Gynecol 30: 137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Latour JPA (1961) Results in the management of preclinical carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 81: 511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Leman MH, Benson WL, Kurman RJ, Park RC (1976) Microcarcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 48: 571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Littman P, Clement PB, Henriksen B, Wang CC, Robboy SJ, Taft PD, Ulfelder H, Scully RE (1976) Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer 37: 2238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lohe KJ (1978) Early squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. I. Definition and histology. Gynecol Oncol 6: 10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lohe KJ (1978) Early squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. III. Frequency of lymph node metastases. Gynecol Oncol 6: 51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lucas WE, Benirschke K, Lebherz TB (1974) Verrucous carcinoma of the female genital tract. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119: 435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lucia SP, Mills H, Lowenhaupt E, Hunt ML (1952) Visceral involvement in primary neoplastic diseases of the reticuloendothelial system. Cancer 5: 1193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Marcial VA, Bosch A (1970) Radiation-induced tumor regression in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: Prognostic significance. Am J Roentgenol 108: 113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Martzloff KH (1923) Carcinoma of the cervix uteri: A pathological and clinical study with particular reference to the relative malignancy of the neoplastic process as indicated by the predominant cell of cancer cell. Bull Johns Hopkins Hospital 34: 141, 184Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McKelvey JL, Goodlin RR (1963) Adenoma malig-num of the cervix: A cancer of deceptively innocent histological pattern. Cancer 16: 549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McNutt NS, Weinstein RS (1969) Carcinoma of the cervix. Deficiency of nexus intercellular junctions. Science 165: 597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Menczner J, Modan B, Oelsner G, Sharon Z, Stein-tiz R, Sampson S (1978) Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in Jewish women. A distinct epidemiologic entity. Cancer 41: 2464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mestwerdt G (1947) Probeexzision und Kolposkopie in des Frühdiagnose des Portiokarcinoms. Zentr. Gynäk. 4:326Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miles PA, Norris HJ (1971) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix: An analysis of 12 cases. Obstet Gynecol 38: 103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ng ABP, Reagan JW, Lindner EA (1972) The cellular manifestations of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Acta Cytol 16: 5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nogales F, Bottela-Llusia J (1965) The frequency of invasion of the lymph nodes in cancer of the uteri cervix: A study of the degree of extension in relation to the histological type of tumor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 93: 91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Okagaki T, Meyer AA, Sciarra JJ (1974) Prognosis of irradiated carcinoma of cervix uteri and nuclear DNA in cytologic post-irradiation dysplasia. Cancer 33: 647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Palmer JP, Spratt DW (1956) Pelvic carcinoma following irradiation for benign gynecological diseases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 72: 497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Papadia S (1962) Mucinous patterns in epidermoid carcinomas. Gynecologia 153: 337Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Park RC, Patow WE, Rogers RE, Zimmerman EA (1973) Treatment of stage I carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 41: 117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Patten SF Jr., Reagan JW, Obenauf M, Ballard L (1963) Post-irradiation dysplasia of uterine cervix and vagina. An analytical study of cells. Cancer 16: 173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pilleron JP, Durand JC, Hamelin JP (1974) Location of lymph node invasion in cancer of the uterine cervix: Study of 140 cases treated at the Curie Foundation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119: 453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Puri S, Fenoglio CM, Richart RM, Townsend DE (1977) Clear cell carcinoma of cervix and vagina in progeny of women who received diethylstilbestrol: Three cases with scanning and transmission election microscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128: 550Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Qizilbash A-H (1975) In situ and microinvasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A clinical, cytologic and histologic study of 14 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 64: 155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rampone JF, Klem W, Kolstad P (1973) Combined treatment of stage Ib carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 41: 163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reagan JW (1974) Cellular pathology and uterine cancer. Am J Clin Pathol 62: 150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reagan JW, Ng ABP (1973) The cellular manifestations of uterine carcinogenesis, In The Uterus, Norris HJ, Hertig AT, Abell MR, (eds): Internatl Acad Path Monograph. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co., pp 320–347Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Report of the Task Force of the Department of National Health and Welfare of Canada. Cervical cancer screening programs. The Walton Report. Canad Med Ass J 144: 2Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Richart RM, Barron BA (1969) A follow-up study of patients with cervical dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 105: 386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Robboy SJ, Herbst AL, Scully RE (1974) Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix in young females: Analysis of 37 tumors that persisted or recurred after primary therapy. Cancer 34: 606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Roche WD, Norris HJ (1975) Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. The significance of lymphatic invasion and confluent patterns of stromal growth. Cancer 36: 180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sedlis A, Sall S, Tsukada Y, Park R, Mangan C, Shingleton H, Blessing JA (1979) Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A clinical-pathologic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Seltzer V, Sall S, Castadot MJ, Muradian-Davidian M, Sedlis A (1979) Glassy cell cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 8: 141–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Seski JC, Abell MR, Morley GW (1977) Microinvasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Definition, histologic analysis, late results of treatment. Obstet Gynecol 50: 410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sidhu GS, Koss LG, Barber HRK (1970) Relation of histologic factors to the response of stage I epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix to surgical treatment: Analysis of 115 patients. Obstet Gynecol 35: 329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Silverberg E (1985) Cancer statistics. Cancer J Clinicians 30: 23Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Silverberg SG, Hurt WG (1975) Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (“adenoma malignum”) of the cervix: A reappraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sotto LSJ, Graham JB, Pickren JW (1960) Postmortem findings in cancer of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 80: 791Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stafl A, Friedrich EG Jr., Mattingly RF (1973) Detection of cervical neoplasia. Reducing the risk of error. Clin Obstet Gynecol 16: 238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stafl A, Mattingly RF (1975) Angiogenesis of cervical neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stern E (1969) Epidemiology of dysplasia. Obstet Gynecol Surv 24: 711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tateishi R, Wada A, Hayakawa K, Hongo J, Ishii S, Terakawa N (1975) Argyrophil cell carcinomas (apudo-mas) of the uterine cervix. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Histol 366: 257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tsukamoto N, Nakamura M, Kashimura M, Saito (1980) Primary cervical choriocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 9:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Twombley GH, Di Palma S (1951) Growth and spread of cancer of cervix uteri. Am J Roentgenol 65: 691Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Villasanta U (1972) Complications of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wahlström T, Lindgren J, Korhonen M, and Seg-gala M (1979) Distinction between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma with immunoperoxidase staining of carcinoembryonic antigen in routine histological tissue specimens. Lancet 2: 1159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Weisbrot IM, Stabinsky C, Davis AM (1972) Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. Cancer 29: 1179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wentz WB, Reagan JW (1970) Clinical significance of post-irradiation dysplasia of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 106: 812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wheeless CR, Graham R, Graham JB (1970) Prognosis and treatment of adenoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol 35: 928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Williamson HO, McIver FA (1968) Sarcoma botryoides of the cervix treated by vaginal hysterectomy and subtotal vaginectomy. Obstet Gynecol 31: 689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wolff JP, Lacour J, Chassagne D, Berend M (1972) Cancer of the cervical stump. Obstet Gynecol 39: 10PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Ferenczy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations