The Development of Control over Affective Expression in Nonverbal Behavior
As adults in a Western culture, most of us have come to learn to control the extent to which, and the ways in which, we nonverbally display our emotions and attitudes. We may hide our feelings of disgust. Our anger may be partially concealed with a fixed smile. There are even situations in which we may wish to conceal our positive attitudes; for instance, in a bargaining exchange.
KeywordsNegative Affect Facial Expression Positive Affect Developmental Trend Expressive Behavior
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Charlesworth, W. R. & Kreutzer, M. A. Facial expressions of infants and children. In P. Ekman (Ed.), Darwin and facial expression. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. K. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P. Facial expression. In A. W. Siegman and S. Feldstein (Eds.), Nonverbal behavior and communication. New York: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. Nonverbal leakage and clues to deception. Psychiatry, 1969, 32, 83–105.Google Scholar
- Feldman, R. S., Devin-Sheehan, L., & Allen, V. L. Nonverbal cues as indicators of verbal dissembling. American Educational Research Journal, 1978, 15, 217–231. Feldman, R. S., Jenkins, L., and Popoola, O. Detection of deception in adults and children via facial expressions. Child Development, 1979, 50, 350–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hall, J. A. Gender differences in nonverbal communication skills. In R. Rosenthal (Ed.), Quantitative assessment of research domains. San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.Google Scholar
- Holzman, P. S. & Rousey, C. The voice as a percept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 4, 78–86.Google Scholar
- Maccoby, E. E. & Jacklin, C. N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
- Moore, B. S. & Underwood, B. The development of prosocial behavior. In S. S. Brehm, S. M. Kassin, and B. F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Developmental social psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
- Morris, D. Manwatching: A field guide to human behavior. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1977.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M., DeFrank, R. S., Hall, J. A., Larrance, D. T., & Rosenthal, R. Facial and vocal cues of deception and honesty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,1979, 15, 378–396.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M., DePaulo, B. M., & Rosenthal, R. Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14 ). New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar