Spontaneous and Symbolic Nonverbal Behavior and the Ontogeny of Communication

  • Ross Buck


Historically, one of the central issues in the study of nonverbal communication has involved the question of whether nonverbal behavior should be regarded as innate or as learned and culturally patterned. Most now recognize that nonverbal behavior involves both innate and learned aspects, with the individual essentially learning how to use a system of communication that has deep evolutionary roots: it is simultaneously a biological phenomenon involving the expression of emotion, and a learned phenomenon analogous to, and interacting with, language.


Facial Expression Left Hemisphere Emotional Expression Nonverbal Behavior Nonverbal Communication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrew, R. J. The origin and evolution of the calls and facial expressions of the primates. Behavior, 1963, 20, 1–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrew, R. J. The origins of facial expressions. Scientific American, 1965, 213, 88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barden, R. C., Zelko, F. A., Duncan, S. W., & Masters, J. C. Children’s consensual knowledge about the experiential determinants of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 39, 968–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birdwhistell, R. L. Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. Borod, J., & Caron, H. Facedness and emotion related to lateral dominance, sex and expression type. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18, 237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borod, J. C., Caron, H. S., & Koff, E. Facial asymmetry related to quantitative measures of handedness, footedness, and eyedness. Cortex,in press.Google Scholar
  7. Buchtel, H., Campan, F., DeRisio, C., & Rota, R., Hemispheric differences in the discrimination reaction time to facial expressions. Italian Journal of Psychology, 1978, 5, 159–169.Google Scholar
  8. Buck, R. Differences in social learning underlying overt-behavioral, self-report, and physiological responses to emotion. Research in Education,1971, 6,19. (abstract)Google Scholar
  9. Buck, R. Human motivation and emotion. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  10. Buck, R. Individual differences in nonverbal sending accuracy and electrodermal responding: The externalizing-internalizing dimension. In R. Rosenthal (Ed.), Skill in nonverbal communication: Individual differences. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, 1979. (a)Google Scholar
  11. Buck, R. Measuring individual differences in the nonverbal communication of affect: The slide-viewing paradigm. Human Communication Research,1979, 6,47–57. (b)Google Scholar
  12. Buck, R. Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion. The facial feedback hy- pothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 38, 811–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buck, R. The evolution and development of emotion expression and communication. In S. Brehm, S. Kassin, and R. Gibbons (Eds.), Developmental social psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. (a)Google Scholar
  14. Buck, R. Sex differences in psychophysiological responding and subjective experience: A comment. Psychophysiology,1981, 18,349–350. (b)Google Scholar
  15. Buck, R. Emotion development and emotion education. In R. Plutchik and H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotions in early development. New York: Academic Press, 1982. (a)Google Scholar
  16. Buck, R. The physiological bases of nonverbal communication. In W. Waid (Ed.), Sociophysiology. New York: Springer-Verlag, in press. (a)Google Scholar
  17. Buck, R. Emotion and nonverbal behavior: The communication of affect. New York: Guilford Press, in press. (b)Google Scholar
  18. Buck, R. W. Nonverbal communication of affect in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 644–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buck, R. W. Nonverbal communication of affect in preschool children: Relationships with personality and skin conductance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1977, 35, 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buck, R., Baron, R., & Barrette, D. The temporal organization of spontaneous nonverbal expression: A segmentation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1982, 42, 506–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buck, R., Baron, R., Goodman, N., and Shapiro, B. The unitization of spontaneous nonverbal behavior in the study of emotion communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 39, 522–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buck, R., & Duffy, R. Nonverbal communication of affect in brain-damaged patients. Cortex, 1980, /6, 351–362.Google Scholar
  23. Buck, R. W., Miller, R. E., & Caul, W. F. Sex personality and physiological variables in the communication of emotion via facial expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buck, R. Savin, V., Miller, R. E., & Caul, W. F. Nonverbal communication of affect in humans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 23, 362–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bugental, D. E. Interpretations of naturally occurring discrepancies between words and intonation: Modes of inconsistency resolution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bugental, D. E., Kaswan, J. W., & Love, L. R. Perception of contradictory meanings conveyed by verbal and nonverbal channels. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 16, 647–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bugental, D. E., Kaswan, J. W., Love, L. R., & Fox, M. N. Child versus adult perception of evaluative messages in verbal, vocal, and visual channels. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 2, 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Campbell, R. Asymmetries in interpreting and expressing a posed facial expression. Cortex, 1978, 14, 327–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cannon, A., & Nachshon, I. Ear asymmetry in perception of emotional and nonverbal stimuli. Acta Physiologica, 1973, 37, 351–357.Google Scholar
  30. Cicone, M., Wapner, W., Foldi, N., Zurif, E., & Gardner, H. The relation between gesture and language in aphasic communication. Brain and Language, 1979, 8 324–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cicone, M., Wapner, W., & Gardner, H. Sensitivity to emotional expressions and situations in organic patients. Cortex, 1980, 16, 145–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Darwin, C. Expressions of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray, 1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeKosky, S. T., Heilman, K. M., Bowers, D., & Valenstein, E. Recognition and discrimination of emotional faces and pictures. Brain and Language, 1980, 9, 206–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dittman, A. The body movement-speech rhythm relationship as a cue to speech encoding. In A. W. Siegmen and B. Pope (Eds.), Studies in dyadic communication. New York: Pergamon Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  35. Duffy, J. R., Watt, J., Duffy, R. J. Path analysis: A strategy for investigating multiple causal relationships in communication disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1981, 24, 474–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Duffy, R. J., & Duffy, J. R. Three studies of deficits in pantomimic expression and pantomimic recognition in aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1981, 24, 70–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Duffy, R. J., & Liles, B. Z. A translation of Finkelnburg’s (1870) lecture on aphasia as “asymbolia” with commentary. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 1979, 44, 156–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ekman, P. About brows: Emotional and conversational signals. In M. von Cranach, K. Foppa, W. Lepenies, Y. D. Ploog (Eds.), Human Ethology. London: Cambridge University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage and coding. Semiotica, 1969, 1, 49–98.Google Scholar
  40. Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. Detecting deception from the body or face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Ekman, P., Hagar, J., & Friesen, W. The symmetry of emotional and deliberate facial action. Psychophysiology, 1981, 18, 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elkind, D. Cognitive growth cycles in mental development. In J. K. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  44. Eysenck, H. J. The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL.: Charles C. Thomas, 1967.Google Scholar
  45. Field, T. M. & Walden, T. A. Perception and production of facial expressions in infancy and early childhood. In H. Reese & L. Lipsett (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior, Vol. 16. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  46. Finkelnburg, F. Niederrheinische Gesellschaft, Sitzung vom 21. Marz 1870 in Bonn. Berl. Klin, Wschr. 7: 449–450, 460–462.Google Scholar
  47. Gainotti, G. Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of the lesion. Cortex, 1972, 8, 41–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gainotti, G. & Lemmo, M. Comprehension of symbolic gestures in aphasia. Brain Lang., 1976, 3, 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Galin, D. Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization: A neurophysiological context for unconscious processes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 31, 572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Galin, D., Diamond, R., & Braff, D. Lateralization of conversion symptoms: More frequent on the left. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1977, 134, 578–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Geschwind, N. The apraxias: Neural mechanisms of disorders of learned movement. American Scientist, 1975, 63, 188–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gibson, J. J. The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1966.Google Scholar
  53. Gibson, J. J. The theory of affordances. In R. E. Shaw and J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1977.Google Scholar
  54. Goodglass, H. & Kaplan, E. Disturbances of gesture and pantomime in aphasia. Brain, 1963, 86, 703–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Graves, C. A. & Natale, M. The relationship of hemispheric preference, as measured by conjugate lateral eye movements, to accuracy of emotional facial expression. Motivation and Emotion, 1979, 3, 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haggard, M. P. & Parkinson, A. M. Stimulus and task factors as determinants of ear advantages. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 23, 168–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall, J. A. Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychological Bulletin, 1978, 85, 845–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heilman, K. M., Coyle, J. M., Gonyea, E. G., & Geschwind, N. Apraxia and agraphia in a left-hander. Brain, 1973, 99, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heilman, K. M., Scholes, R., & Watson, R. T. Auditory affective agnosia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1975, 38, 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heilman, K. M., Schwartz, H. D., & Watson, R. T. Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference. Neurology, 1978, 28, 229–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heller, W. & Levy, J. Perception and expression of emotion in right-handers and lefthanders. Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Izard, C. E., Huebner, R. R. Risser, D., McGinnes, G. C., & Dougherty, L. M. The young infant’s ability to produce discrete emotion expressions. Developmental Psychology, 1980, 16, 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones, H. E. The galvanic skin response as related to overt emotional expression. American Journal of Psychology, 1935, 47, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones, H. E. The study of patterns of emotional expression. In M. Reymert (Ed.), Feelings and emotions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, H. E. The longitudinal method in the study of personality. In I. Iscoe & H. W. Stevenson (Eds.), Personality development in children. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  66. Jurgens, Uwe. Neural control of vocalization in nonhuman primates. In H. D. Steklis & M. J. Raleigh (Eds.), Neurobiology of social communication in primates. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  67. Katz, R. C. Perception of facial affect in aphasia. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical aphasiology: Conference proceedings 1980. Minneapolis: BRK Publishers, 1980.Google Scholar
  68. Key, M. R. The relationship of verbal and nonverbal communication. New York: Mouton, 1980.Google Scholar
  69. Kimura, D. Neuromotor mechanisms in the evolution of human communication. In H. D. Steklis & M. J. Raleigh (Eds.), Neurobiology of social communication in primates. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  70. Koenig, O. Das aktionssystem der Bartmeise (Panurus biarmicus L). Oesterr. Zool. Z., 1951, 3, 247–325.Google Scholar
  71. Koff, E., Borod, J., & White, B. Asymmetries for hemiface size and mobility. Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 825–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Landis, T., Assal, G., & Perret, E. Opposite cerebral hemisphere superiorities for visual associative processing of emotional facial expressions and objects. Nature, 1979, 278, 739–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ley, R. G. & Bryden, M. P. Hemispheric differences in processing emotions and faces. Brain and Language, 1979, 1, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lishman, W. A. Emotion, consciousness, and will after brain bisection in man. Cortex, 1971, 7, 181–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mead, G. H. Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  76. Mehrabian, A. & Ferris, S. R. Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31, 248–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mehrabian, A. & Wiener, M. Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 6, 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Miller, R. E. Experimental approaches to the autonomic and behavioral aspects of affective communication in rhesus monkeys. In S. Altmann (Ed.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, R. E. Experimental studies of communication in the monkey. In L. Rosenblum (Ed.), Primate behavior developments in field and laboratory research, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, R. E. Social and pharmacological influences on nonverbal communication in monkeys and man. In L. Krames, T. Alloway, & P. Pliner (Eds.), Nonverbal communication. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  81. Moore, W. H. & Haynes, W. O. A study of alpha hemispheric asymmetries for verbal and nonverbal stimuli in males and females. Brain and Language, 1980, 9, 338–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morrow, L., Virtunski, P. B., Kin, Y., & Boller, F. Arousal responses to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion. Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moscovitch, M. & Olds, J. Asymmetries in spontaneous facial expressions and their possible relation to hemispheric specialization. Neuropsychologia, 1982, 20, 71–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Piaget, J. Piaget’s theory. In P. Mussen (Ed.),Handbook of child development, Vol. 1. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  85. Pickett, L. W. An assessment of gestural and pantomimic deficit in aphasic patients. Acta Symbolica, 1974, 5, 69–86.Google Scholar
  86. Riggs, G., Winter, P., Ploog, D., & Mayer, W. Effects of deafening on the vocal behavior of the squirrel monkey. Folia primat, 1972, 17, 404–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Russell, B. The principles of mathematics. London: Allen & Unwin, 1903.Google Scholar
  88. Sackeim, H. A., Gur, R. C., & Saucy, M. C. Emotions are expressed more intensely on the left side of the face. Science, 1978, 202, 434–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sackett, G. P. Monkeys reared in isolation with pictures as visual input: Evidence for an innate releasing mechanism. Science, 1966, 154, 1468–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Safer, M. A. Sex and hemisphere differences in access to codes for processing emotional expressions and faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1981, 110, 86–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Safer, M. A. & Leventhal, H. Ear differences in evaluating emotional tones of voice and verbal content. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1977, 3, 75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scheflen, A. Communicational structure. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  93. Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., & Maer, F. Right hemisphere lateralization for emotion in the human brain: Interactions with cognition. Science, 1975, 190, 286–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. van den Linden, M. Pantomime interpretation and aphasia. Neuropsychologia. 1979, 17, 661–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shearer, S. L. & Tucker, D. M. Differential cognitive contributions of the cerebral hemispheres in the modulation of emotional arousal. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1981, 5, 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sommers, S. Emotionality reconsidered: The role of cognition in emotional responsiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 41, 553–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sperry, R. W. & Gazzaniga, M. S. Language following surgical disconnection of the commissures. In F. L. Darley (Ed.), Brain mechanisms underlying speech and language. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  98. Stem, D. B. Handedness and the lateral distribution of conversion reactions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1977, 164, 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Suberi, M. & McKeever, W. F. Differential right hemispheric memory of emotional and non-emotional faces. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 757–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Terzian, H. Behavioural and EEG effects of intracarotid sodium amytal infections. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 1964, 12, 230–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Terzian, H. & Ceccotto, C. Su un nuova metodo per la determinazione e lo studio della dominanaza emisferica. Giorn. Psichiat. Neuropat., 1959, 87, 889–924.Google Scholar
  102. Trotman, S. C. A. & Hammond, G. R. Sex differences in task-dependent EEG asymmetries. Psychophysiology, 1979, 16, 429–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tucker, D. M. Lateral brain function, emotion, and conceptualization. Psychological Bulletin, 1981, 89, 19–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tucker, D. M. & Newman, J. P. Lateral brain function and the cognitive inhibition of emotional arousal. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1981, 5, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tucker, D. M., Roth, R. S., Arneson, B. A., & Buckingham, V. Right hemisphere activation during stress. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 697–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tucker, D. M., Watson, R. T., & Heilman, K. M. Discrimination and evocation of affectively intoned speech in patients with right parietal disease. Neurology, 1977, 27, 947–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Varney, N. R. Linguistic correlates of pantomime recognition in aphasic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1978, 41, 564–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Volkmar, F. R., Hoder, L., & Siegel, A. E. Discrepant social communications. Developmental Psychology, 1980, /6, 495–505.Google Scholar
  109. Weiner, M., Devoe, S., Rubinow, S., & Geller, J. Nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication. Psychological Review, 1972, 79, 185–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wenger, M. A. & Bagchi, B. K. Studies of autonomic functions in practitioners of yoga in India. Behavioral Science, 1961, 6, 312–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wenger, M. A., Bagchi, B. K., & Anand, B. K. Experiments in India on “voluntary” control of the heart and pulse. Circulation, 1961, 24, 1319–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Winter, P., Handley, P., Ploog, E., & Schott, D. Ontogeny of squirrel monkey calls under normal conditions and under acoustic isolation. Behaviour, 1973, 47, 230–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zuckerman, M. & Przewuzman, S. Decoding and encoding facial expressions in preschool-age children. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 1979, 3, 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross Buck

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations