Salivary Glands and Vascular Smooth Muscle
This chapter has as its objective a review of the effects of the autonomic nervous system on oral-facial and pharyngeal functions, and a review of autonomic effects arising from stimulation of oral-facial and pharyngeal structures. Some of these topics are common to the earlier review of control of blood circulation in oral tissues by Bishop and Dorman (1968). The nature of the innervation, identification of the transmitters and their effects on vascular smooth muscle, salivary and sweat glands, on pain and on reflexes elicited from this region will be discussed. Only the major principles and trends in research on autonomic innervation of the salivary glands will be presented, since the volume of data on this subject would warrant a book of its own. Neurotrophic effects exerted by the autonomic nervous system are discussed in the previous chapter. The effects of nonnoxious and noxious stimulation of oral-facial, pharyngeal, and laryngeal areas on cardiac rhythm and blood pressure are discussed where data are available. No attempt will be made to describe the general organization of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems or to review the large body of information on neurotransmission within these systems. This review will not discuss the neural integration of autonomic function that is now known to occur at nearly every level of the central nervous system. Because of the importance, however, of emotional state in syndromes such as the temporal mandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome, some of the recent findings on interactions between the limbic system and the autonomic nervous system will be presented. The reader may wish to consult recent accounts of the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system in publications such as Hubbard (1974) and Burn (1975), and recent reviews on autonomic transmitters in the pharmacological literature (see Carrier, 1972).
KeywordsSalivary Gland Autonomic Nervous System Sweat Gland Autonomic Function Nictitate Membrane
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