Advertisement

Inhibition of Mallard salt Gland Function by DDE and Organophosphates

  • M. Friend
  • J. H. AbelJr

Abstract

The effects of selected environmental pollutants on avian salt gland function were studied in the mallard duck, Anas pZatyrhynchos. DDE and several organophosphates were found to have an inhibitory effect on the ability of these glands to concentrate and secrete salt from the body. DDE significantly reduced secretion rates from the salt glands. More severe effects were observed following exposure to organophosphate insecticides; reduction in gland size, reduced ability of the birds to secrete Na+ via the salt glands, and reductions in cholinesterase activities in the salt gland and hypothalamus all contributed to elevated mortality levels in treatment birds over controls.

Keywords

Hypertonic Saline Salt Gland Organophosphate Insecticide Mallard Duck Intraperitoneal Inoculation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Die Wirkung von ausgewählten Umwelt schmutzteile wurden untersucht, an der Salzdrüse von der Stockente, Anas pZatyrhynchos. Es wurde festgestellt, das DDE und einige andere Mischungen die Dräse hindern, Salz vom körper zu sondern. DDE erniedrigte die Absonderungen von der Drüse bedeutendlich. Eine größere Wirkung wulde festgestellt bei der Entblößung der Drüse zu den anderen Mischungen. Reduzierung der Dräsen giäße, beschränkte Fähigkeit der Drüse zur ausscheidung von Na+, eine Verminderung der Tätigkeit des Nervensytems der Drüse und des Gehirns, waren sicher die massgebende Beweise der Erhähten Sterblichkeitsziffer der Behandelten Enten, gegenüber der nicht Behandelten Vögel.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baytex = 0,0-dimethyl 0- (4-(methylthio)-m-tolyi] phosphorothioate.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bidrin = 3-(dimethoxyphosphinyloxy)-N, N-dimethyl-ciscrotonamide.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bradley, E. L. and W. N. Holmes. 1972. The role of the nasal glands in the survival of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to hypertonic saline drinking water. Can. J. Zool. 50: 611–617.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carbaryl = 1 -napthyl N-methylcarbamate.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cutkomp, L. K., H. H. Yap, E. Y. Cheng and K. B. Koch. 1971. ATPase activity in fish tissue homogenates and inhibitory effects of DDT and related compounds. Chem.-Biol. Interactions 3: 439–447.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DDE = 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis Cp-chloropheny J ethylene.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dieldrin = 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-endo-exo-5,8dimethanonaphthalene (= HEOD), and related compounds.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ellis, R. A., C. C. Goertemiller, Jr., R. A. DeLellis and Y. H. Kablotsky. 1963. The effect of a salt water regimen on the development of the salt glands of domestic ducklings. Dev. Biol. 8: 286–308.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    EPN = 0-ethyl 0-p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fest, C. and K. J. Schmidt. 1973. The chemistry of organophosphorous pesticides, reactivity, syntheses, mode of action, toxicology. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fletcher, G. L. and W. N. Holmes. 1968. Observations on the intake of water and electrolytes by the duck (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained on fresh water and on hypertonic saline. J. Exp. Biol. 49: 325–339.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Friend, M., M. A. Haegele and R. Wilson. 1973. DDE: Interference with extra-renal salt excretion in the mallard. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9: 49–53.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanwell, A., J. L. Linzell and M. Peaker. 1971. Salt-gland secretion and blood flow in the goose. J. Physiol. 213: 373–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heath, R. G., J. W. Spann, E. F. Hill and J. F. Kreitzer. 1972. Comparative dietary toxicities of pesticides to birds. Spec. Sci. Rep.-Wildl. No. 152, U. S. Dept. Interior.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Janicki, R. H. and W. B. Kinter. 1971a. DDT: Disrupted osmoregulatory events in the intestine of the eel Anguilla rostrata adapted to seawater. Science 173: 1146–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Janicki, R. H. and W. B. Kinter. 1971b. DDT inhibits Na+, K+, Mg2+-ATPase in the intestinal mucosae and gills of marine teleosts. Nature (New Biol) 233: 148–149.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malathion = 0,0-dimethyl 5-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) dithiophosphate.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Phillips, J. G., W. N. Holmes and D. G. Butler. 1961. The effect of total and subtotal adrenalectomy on the renal and extra-renal response of the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to saline loading. Endocrinology 69: 958–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parathion = 0,0-diethyl 0-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1960. The salt-secreting gland of marine birds. Circulation 21: 955–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K. and R. Fänge. 1958. Extrarenal salt secretion. Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 17: 142.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K., C. B. Jörgensen and H. Osaki. 1957. Secretion of hypertonic solutions in marine birds. Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 16: 113–114.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K., C. B. Jörgensen and H. Osaki. 1958. Extrarenal salt excretion in birds. Am. J. Physiol. 193: 169–188.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steward, D. J., W. N. Holmes and G. L. Fletcher. 1969. The renal excretion of nitrogenous compounds by the duck (Anas pZatyrhynchos) maintained on freshwater and hypertonic saline. J. Exp. Biol. 50: 527–539.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tucker, R. K. and D. G. Crabtree. 1970. Handbook of toxicity of pesticides to wildlife. Resource Publ. No. 84, U. S. Dept. Interior.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Friend
    • 1
  • J. H. AbelJr
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Natl.Fish & Wildlife Health Lab.Dept. Vet.Sci. Univ. WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Denver Wildlife Res.Ctr.U.S. Fish & Wildlife Sv.DenverUSA
  3. 3.Dept. Physiol. & BiophysicsColorado State Univ.Ft. CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations