Helminth Range Extension by Translocation of Fish

  • O. N. Bauer
  • G. L. Hoffman


Since 1850 the geographical ranges of many helminths of fish have increased as a result of the intercontinental and transcontinental transportation of parasitized fish due to transportation. The ease with which helminths are established in new areas depends on the complexity of the life cycle. Helminths such as Monogenoidea, which develop without intermediate hosts and in which swimming larvae infest fish, have been most frequently transferred. They have been moved to new continents with food, sport, and ornamental fish. MonoNeneans have been translocated from Europe to North America and vice versa, and from East Asia to Europe. The establishment of helminths requiring two hosts has been less frequent, but a considerable number have been transferred and a few have become widely distributed. Cestodes (Proteocephalidae,.Bothriocephalidae) and nematodes (Philometridae) that develop in cosmopolitan copepods or oligochaetes (Caryophyllaeidae) have also been transferred. Helminths which have more than two hosts and a complicated life cycle, such as trematodes, are usually not successfully introduced with the fish host.

The translocation of dangerous fish parasites can be avoided by inspection of the fish and the control and eradication of the parasites before the fish are shipped.


Intermediate Host Fish Farm Grass Carp Parasite Fauna Fish Parasite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Seit 1850 haben viele Helminthen der Süsswasserfische neue Gewässer besiedelt, was mit der Fischbeförderung verknüpft ist. Diese Beförderungen waren wie interkontinental so auch transkontinental. Die Möglichkeit der Akklimatisierung der Helminthen beruht auf den Besonderheiten ihres Lebenskreises. Helminthen, die wie Monogenoidea ohne Zwischenwirte sich entwickeln und den Fisch mit Hilfe einer schwimmenden Larve befallen, akklimatisieren sich am leichtesten. Sie werden mit Speise-, Sport- und Zierfischen in die Gewässer neuer Kontinente eingeschleppt. Monogeneen wurden von Europa nach Nordamerika und vice versa, von Ostasien nach Europa usw befördert. Akklimatisierung der Helminthen, deren Entwicklung zwei Wirte fordert, wird nicht so oft beobachtet, doch einige Arten von solchen wurden recht weit verbreitet. Cestoden (Proteocephalidae, Bothriocephalidae) und Nematoden (Philometridae), die in kosmopolitischen Copepoden, so auch Cestoden (Carophyllaeidae), die sich in kosmopolitischen Oligochaeten entwickeln, wurden in viele neue Gewässer eingeschleppt. Helminthen, die mehr als zwei Wirte in ihrem komplizierten Lebenskreis haben, wie zum Beispiel die Trematoden, werden meistens mit den beförderten Fischen nicht akklimatisiert.

Damit man der Einschleppung der pathogenen Fischparasiten vorbeugen kann, soll man eine Inspizierung der Fische und die Ausrottung der Parasiten vor der Beförderung der Fische durchführen.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. N. Bauer
    • 1
  • G. L. Hoffman
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteAcademy of ScienceLeningradUSSR
  2. 2.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Fish Farming Exp. Sta.StuttgartUSA

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