Cognition and Consolidation



There are certain facts concerning the nature of learning in laboratory animals as well as ordinary human beings that make it difficult (and perhaps even impossible) for us to discover the neural processes and processing which enable us to learn and remember. Some of the most important and perplexing of these facts were revealed by the research of Edward Chace Tolman and his students in the Department of Psychology at Berkeley. It is through the Berkeley influence that we learned that we must distinguish learning from performance. Performance is observed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amaral, DG., and Foss, JA1975Locus coeruleus lesions and learningScience, 188, 377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anlezark, GM., Crow, TJ., and Greenway, AP1973Impaired learning and decreased cortical norepinephrine after bilateral locus coeruleus lesionsScience, 181, 682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benevento, L.A., and Kandel, GL1967Influence of strychnine on classically conditioned defensive reflexes in the catJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 117-120.Google Scholar
  4. Block, V1970Facts and hypotheses concerning memory consolidationBrain Research, 24, 561 - 575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bovet, D., McCaugh, JL., and Oliverio, A1966Effects of post trial administration of drugs on avoidance learning of miceLife Sciences, 5, 1309 - 1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breen, RA., and McGaugh, JL1961Facilitation of maze learning with posttrial injections of picrotoxinJournal of Comparatives and Physiological Psychology, 54, 498 - 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawson, RG., and McGaugh, JL1973Drug facilitation of learning and memoryIn: The Physiological Basis of MemoryJADeutschAcademic Press, New York, pp77-lll.Google Scholar
  8. Denti, A., McGaugh, JL., Landfield, P., and Shinkman, P1970Facilitation of learning with posttrial stimulation of the reticular formationPhysiology and Behavior, 5, 659 - 662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Wied, D1974Pituitary-adrenal system hormones and behaviorIn: The NeurosciencesFOSchmitt and FGWorden (eds.)M.I.TPress, Cambridge, Mass., pp653 - 666.Google Scholar
  10. Doty, BA., and Doty, L.A1964Effect of age and chlorpromazine on memory consolidationJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 57, 331 - 334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doty, BA., and Doty, LA1966Facilitative effects of amphetamine on avoidance conditioning in relation to age and problem difficultyPsyclwpharmacologia, 9, 234 - 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duncan, CP1949The retroactive effect of electroshock on learningJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 42, 32 - 44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fishbein, W., McGaugh, JL., and Swarz, JR1971Retrograde amnesia: Electroconvulsive shock effects after termination of rapid eye movement sleep deprivationScience, 182, 80 - 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franchina, JJ., and Moore, MH1968Strychnine and the inhibition of previous performancesScience, 160, 903 - 904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freund, G., and Walker, DW1971The effect of aging on acquistion and retention of shuttle box avoidance in miceLife Sciences, 10, 1343 - 1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerard, RW1949Physiology and psychiatryAmerican Journal of Psychiatry, 106, 161 - 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gold, PEand McGaugh, JL1975aA single-trace, two-process view of memory storage processesIn: Short-Term MemoryDDeutsch and JADeutsch (eds.)Academic Press, New York, pp355 - 378.Google Scholar
  18. Gold, PE., and McGaugh, JL1975bChanges in learning and memory during agingIn: Neurobiology of AgingJMOrdy and KRBrizzee (eds.)Plenum Press, New York, pp145 - 158.Google Scholar
  19. Gold, PE., and van Buskirk, RB1975Facilitation oftime-dependent memory processes with posttrial epinephrine injectionsBehavioral Biology, 13, 145 - 153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gold, PE., and van Buskirk, RB1976aEnhancement and impairment of memory processes with posttrial injections of adrenocorticotropic hormoneBehavioral Biology, 16, 387 - 400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gold, PE., and van Buskirk, R1976bHormonally mediated noradrenergic modulation of memory processesIn preparation.Google Scholar
  22. Gold, PE., and van Buskirk, RB1977Effects of posttrial hormone injections on memory processesHormones and Behavior, in press.Google Scholar
  23. Gold, PE., Macri, J., and McGaugh, JL1973aRetrograde amnesia gradients: Effects of direct cortical stimulationScience, 179, 1343 - 1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gold, PE., Macri, J., and McGaugh, JL1973bRetrograde amnesia produced by subseizure amygdala stimulationBehavioral Biology, 9, 671 - 680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gold, PE., Zornetzer, SF., and McGaugh, JL1974Electrical stimulation of the brainGoogle Scholar
  26. Effects on memory storageIn: Advances in Psychobiology, Vol2GNewton and ARiesen (eds.)Wiley lnterscience, New York, pp64-75.Google Scholar
  27. Gold, PE., Edwards, RM., and McGaugh, JL1975aAmnesia produced by unilateral, subseizure, electrical stimulation of the amygdala in ratsBehavioral Biology, 15, 95 - 105.Google Scholar
  28. Gold, PE., Hankins, L., Edwards, RM., Chester, J., and McGaugh, JL1975bMemory interference and facilitation with posttrial amygdala stimulation: Effect on memory varies with footshock levelBrain Research, 86, 509 - 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gold, PE., van Buskirk, R., and McGaugh, JL1975cAge-related changes in learning and memoryIn: Survey Report on the Aging Nervous SystemGJMaletta (Ed.)U.SGovernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp169 - 178.Google Scholar
  30. Handwerker, MJ., Gold, PE., and McGaugh, JL1974Impairment of active avoidance learning with posttraining amygdala stimulationBrain Research, 75, 324 - 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hartmann, E., and Stern, WC1972Desynchronized sleep deprivation: Learning deficit and its reversal by increased catecholaminesPhysiology and Behavior, 8, 585 - 587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haycock, JW., Deadwyler, SA., Sideroff, SI., and McGaugh, JL1973Retrograde amnesia and cholinergic systems in the caudate-putamen complex and dorsal hippocampus of the ratExperimental Neurology, 41, 201 - 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haycock, JW., van Buskirk, RB., and McGaugh, JL1976Facilitation of retention with posttrial intraventricular administration of catecholaminesIn preparation.Google Scholar
  34. Hebb, DO1949The Organization of Behavior, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Hilgard, ER1956Theories of Learning, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Hudspeth, WJ1964Strychnine: Its facilitating effect on the solution of a simple oddity problem by the ratScience, 145, 1331 - 1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hull, CL1951Essentials of BehaviorYale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  38. Hunt, E., and Krivanek, J1966The effects of pentylenetetrazol and methylphenoxypropane on discrimination learningPsychopharmacologia, 9, 1 - 16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jarvik, ME1972Effects of chemical and physical treatments on learning and memoryAnnual Review of Psychology, 23, 457 - 486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. John, ER1972Statistical versus switchboard theories of memoryScience, 177, 850 - 864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jouvet, M1967Neurophysiology of the states of sleepPhysiological Review, 47, 117 - 177.Google Scholar
  42. Kandel, ER., and Spencer, WA1968Cellular neurophysiological approaches in the study of learningPhysiological Review, 48, 65 - 134.Google Scholar
  43. Kesner, RP., and Wilburn, MW1974A review of electrical stimulation of the brain in the context of learning and retentionBehaviorial Biology, 10, 259 - 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kety, SS1970The biogenic amines in the central nervous system: Their possible roles in arousal, emotion, and learningIn: The NeurosciencesF0Schmitt (Ed.)Rockefeller University Press, New York, pp324 - 336.Google Scholar
  45. Kety, SS1972Brain catecholamines, affective states and memoryIn: The Chemistry of Mood, Motivation, and Memory, Vol4 of Advances in Behavioral BiologyJLMcGaugh (Ed.)Plenum Press, New York, pp65 - 80.Google Scholar
  46. Krech, D1972DiscussionIn: The Chemistry of Mood, Motivation, and Memory, Vol4 of Advances in Behavioral BiologyJLMcGaugh (Ed.)Plenum Press, New York, pp217 - 223.Google Scholar
  47. Krivanek, J., and McGaugh, JL1968Effects of pentylenetetrazol on memory storage inGoogle Scholar
  48. micePsychopharmacologia, 12, 303-321.Google Scholar
  49. Krivanek, JA., and McGaugh, JL1969Facilitating effects of pre- and posttrial amphetamine administration on discrimination learning in miceAgents and Actions, 1, 36 - 42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Landfield, PW., Tusa, R., and McGaugh, JL1973Effects of posttrial hippocampal stimulation on memory storage and EEG activityBehavioral Biology, 8, 485 - 505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lashley, KS1917The effects of strychnine and caffeine upon the rate of!earningPsychobiology, 1, 141 - 170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lashley, KS1933Integrative functions of the cerebral cortexPhysiological Review, 13, 1 - 42.Google Scholar
  53. Lashley, KS1949Persistent problems in the evolution of mindQuarterly Review of Biology, 24, 28 - 42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lashley, KS1950In search of the engramIn: Symposium of the Society for Experimelltal Biology, No4Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp454 - 482.Google Scholar
  55. Leconte, P., and Hennevin, E1973Characteristiques temporelles de l'augmentation de sommeil paradoxal consecutif a l'apprentissage chez le ratPhysiology and Behavior, 11, 677 - 686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leconte, P., Hennevin, E., and Bloch, V1973Analyse des effets d'un apprentissage et de son niveau d'acquisition sur le sommeil paradoxa! consecutifBrain Research, 49, 367 - 379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayer-Gross, W1943Retrograde amnesiaLancet, 2, 603 - 605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McDougall, W1901Facilitative and disruptive effects of strychnine sulphate on maze learningPsychological Reports, 8, 99 - 104.Google Scholar
  59. McGaugh, JL1959Some neurochemical factors in learningPh.DthesisUniversity of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  60. McGaugh, JL1961Facilitative and disruptive effects of strychnine on maze learningPsychological Reports, 8, 99 - 104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McGaugh, JL1966Time-dependent processes in memory storageScience, 153, 1351 - 1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McGaugh, JL1968Drug facilitation of memory and learningIn: Psychopharmacology: A Review of ProgressDHEfron et a!(Eds.)U.SGovernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., PHS Pub!No1836, pp891 - 904.Google Scholar
  63. McGaugh, JL1973Drug facilitation of learning and memoryAnnual Review of Pharmacology, 13, 229 - 241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McGaugh, JL1974Electroconvulsive shock: Effects on learning and memory in animalsIn: Psychobiology of Convulsive TherapyMFink, SSKety, JLMcGaugh, and TAWilliams (Eds.)VHWinston, Washington, D.C., pp85 - 97.Google Scholar
  65. McGaugh, JL1976Neurobiological aspects of memoryIn: Biological Foundations of PsychiatryRGGrenell and SGabay (Eds.)Raven Press, New York, pp499 - 525.Google Scholar
  66. McGaugh, JL., and Cole, JM1965Age and strain differences in the effect of distribution of practice on maze learningPsychonomic Science, 2, 253 - 254.Google Scholar
  67. McGaugh, JL., and Dawson, RG1971Modification of memory storage processesIn: Animal MemoryWKHoning and PHRJames (Eds.)Academic Press, New York, pp215 - 242.Google Scholar
  68. McGaugh, JL., and Gold, PE1974Conceptual and neurobiological issues in studies of treatments affecting memory storageIn: Tire Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol8GHBower (Ed.)Academic Press, New York, pp233 - 262.Google Scholar
  69. McGaugh, JL., and Gold, PE1976Modulation of memory processes with electrical stimulation of the brainIn: Neural 1Hechanisms of Learning and MemoryMRosenzweig and EBennett (Eds.)MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp549 - 560.Google Scholar
  70. McGaugh, JL., and Herz, MJ1972Memory Consolidation, Albion, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  71. McGaugh, JL., and Krivanek, J1970Strychnine effects on discrimination learning in mice: Effects of dose and time of administrationPhysiology and Behavior, 5, 1437 - 1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McGaugh, JL., and Petrinovich, L1959The effect of strychnine sulphate on mazelearningAmerican Journal of Psychology 72, 99 - 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGaugh, JL., and Petrinovich, LF1965Effects of drugs on learning and memoryInternational Review of Neurobiology, 8, 139 - 196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McGaugh, JL., and Thomson, CW1962Facilitation of simultaneous discrimination learning with strychnine sulphatePsychopharmacologia, 3, 166 - 172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McGaugh, JL., Westbrook, WH., and Thomson, CW1961Strain differences in the facilitative effects of 5-5-diphenyl-1-3-diazadamantan-6-ol (1757 I.S.) on maze learning.Google Scholar
  76. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 502-505.Google Scholar
  77. McGaugh, JL., Thomson, CW., Westbrook, WH., and Hudspeth, WJ., 1962A further study of learning facilitation with strychnine sulphatePsychopharmacologia, 3, 352 - 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McGaugh, JL., Gold, PE., van Buskirk, RB., and Haycock, JW1975Modulating influences of hormones and catecholamines on memory storage processesIn: Hormones, Homeostasis and the Brain, Vol42 of Progress in Brain ResearchWHGispen, van Wimersma, TBGreidanus, BBohus, and Dde Wied (Eds.)Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp151 - 162.Google Scholar
  79. Meligeni, JA., Ledergerber, SA., and McGaugh, JL1975Reversal of diethyldithiocarbamate induced amnesia by norepinephrineIn: Neuroscience AbstractsSociety for Neuroscience, Bethesda, Md., p514.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, NE1959Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extension to conflict behavior, motivation, and social learningIn: Psychology: A Study of a Science, Vol2SKoch (Ed.)McGraw-Hill, New York, pp196 - 292.Google Scholar
  81. Mueller, GE., and Pilzecker, A1900Experimentelle Beitrage zur Lehre vom GedachtnissZeitschrift fuer Psychologie, I, 1 - 288.Google Scholar
  82. Oliverio, A1968Effects of nicotine and strychnine on transfer of avoidance learning in the mouseLife Sciences, 7, 1163 - 1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oliverio, A., and Bovet, D1966Effects of age on maze learning and avoidance conditioning of miceLife Sciences, 5, 1317 - 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Osborne, RH., and Kerkut, GA1972Inhibition of noradrenalin biosynthesis and its effects on learning in ratsComparative and General Pharmacology, 3, 359 - 362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pare, W1961The effect of caffeine and seconal on a visual discrimination taskJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 506 - 509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pearlman, C., and Becker, M1973Brief posttrial REM sleep deprivation impairs discrimination learning in ratsPhysiological Psychology, I, 373 - 376.Google Scholar
  87. Petrinovich, LF1963Facilitation of successive discrimination learning by strychnine sulphatePsychopharmacologia, 4, 103 - 113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Petrinovich, LF1967Drug facilitation of learning: Strain differencesPsyclwpharmacologia, 10, 375 - 378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Petrinovich, L., and Bolles, R1957Delayed alternation: Evidence for symbolic processes in the ratJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 50, 363 - 365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Petrinovich, L., Bradford, D., and McGaugh, JL1965Drug facilitation of memory in ratsPsychonomic Science, 2, 191 - 192.Google Scholar
  91. Randt, CT., Quartermain, D., Goldstein, M., and Anagnoste, B1971Norepinephrine biosynthesis inhibition: Effects on memory in miceScience, 172, 498 - 499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ray, OS., and Barrett, RJ1973Interaction of learning and memory with age in the ratIn: Psychopharmacology and AgingCEisdorfer and WEFann (Eds.)Plenum Press, New York, pp17 - 39.Google Scholar
  93. Routtenberg, A., and Holzman, N1973Memory disruption by electrical stimulation of substantia nigra, pars compactaScience, 181, 83 - 86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Russell, WRand Nathan, PW1946Traumatic amnesiaBrain, 69, 280 - 300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sideroff, S., Bueno, O., Hirsch, A., Weyand, T., and McGaugh, JL1974Retrograde amnesia initiated by low-level stimulation of hippocampal cytoarchitectonic areasExperimental Neurology, 43, 285 - 297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stein, L., Belluzzi, J.D., and Wise, CD1975Memory enhancement by central administration of norepinephrineBrain Research, 84, 329 - 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tolman, EC1932Purposive Behavior in Animals and MenCentury, New York.Google Scholar
  98. Tolman, EC1948Cognitive maps in rats and menPsychological Review, 55, 189 - 208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tolman, EC1951Collected Papers in Psychology. University of California Press, Berkeley, 289 pages.Google Scholar
  100. Tolman, EC., and Brunswik, E1935The organism and the causal texture of the environmentPsychological Review, 42, 43 - 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tolman, EC., and Honzik, CH1930 Introduction and removal of reward, and maze performance in ratsUniversity of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 338-342Google Scholar
  102. van Buskirk, RB., Haycock, JW., Gold, PE., and McGaugh, JL 1976 Modification of memory processes in rats by diethyldithiocarbamate and fusaric acidIn preparation.Google Scholar
  103. Westbrook, WH., and McGaugh, JL1964Drug facilitation of latent learning, Psychopharmacologia, 5, 440 - 446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wyers, EJ., Peeke, HVS., Williston, JS., and Herz, MJ1968Retroactive impairment of passive avoidance learning by stimulation of the caudate nucleusExperimental Neurology, 22, 350 - 366.Google Scholar
  105. Zometzer, SF 1974 Retrograde amnesia and brain seizures in rodents: Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical analysesIn: The Psychobiology of Convulsive TherapyMFink, SSKety, JLMcGaugh, and TAWilliams (Eds.)VHWinston, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  106. Zometzer, SF., and Gold, M.S 1975 Effects of locus coeruleus lesions on the susceptibility of labile memory to disruptionIn: Neuroscience AbstractsSociety for Neuroscience, Bethesda, Md., p821.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychobiology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations