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Ultrastructural Characteristics of Human Tumor Cells in Vitro

  • Gabriel Seman
  • Leon Dmochowski

Abstract

In this chapter, only tumor cells of human origin will be considered. Animal tumor cells will not be considered, except when a direct comparison between the results of ultrastructural studies of human cells and those of animal cells will help in furthering the discussion. The history of ultrastructural studies of human tumor cells grown in vitro has been determined by a number of important factors. The first was the development, in the late 1940s, of commercially available electron microscopes, followed by the development, in the early 1950s, of thin-sectioning procedures and fixation and embedding procedures (Palade, 1952; Porter and Kallman, 1953) for biological material that were suitable for electron microscopy. For several years, electron microscopists have been experiencing serious difficulties with fixative solutions and even more with media for embedding. Methacrylate, the plastic commonly used for embedding until 1963–1964, was a poor medium. The understanding of cellular ultrastructure improved considerably when fixation in glutaraldehyde (Sabatini et al.,1963), followed by fixation in osmic acid, and use of high-quality embedding resins such as Epon (Luft, 1961) and Araldite (Glauert et al., 1956) were introduced for preparation of specimens. At the same time, the development of media for tissue culture (Eagle, 19556; McCoy and Neuman, 1956) protected against contamination by a variety of antibiotics made possible the prolonged cultivation of human tumor cells with reasonable chances of success.

Keywords

HeLa Cell Human Tumor Cell Tissue Culture Cell Acanthosis Nigricans Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Seman
    • 1
  • Leon Dmochowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of VirologyThe University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston, Texas Medical CenterHoustonUSA

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