Cytological Characterization of Human Tumor Cells from Monolayer Cultures

  • Michael A. Bean
  • Steven I. Hajdu


Classically, when using the technique of monolayer tissue culture, an investigator describes the cytology of the tumor cells he is studying by referring either to a fixed and stained slide, to a coverslip preparation of the adherent cells or to the phase contrast appearance of these cells while living and attached to either a glass or plastic surface (see the listing of published human tumor cell lines, Chapter 5). The observer is then able to assign certain cytological characteristics to the cells such as epithelioid, spindle cell, fibroblastic, or pleomorphic. Because these cells are attached to glass and have been actively growing, a considerable amount of information can be gathered in terms of growth pattern, such as the degree of contact inhibition, piling up, colony formation, cohesiveness, and focus formation, all of which may be useful in distinguishing neoplastic from benign cells.


Ethyl Alcohol Monolayer Culture Human Tumor Cell Malignant Epithelial Tumor Exfoliative Cytology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaronson, S. A., Todaro, G. J., and Freeman, A. E., 1970, Human sarcoma cells in culture, Exp. Cell Res. 61: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biedler, J. L., Helson, L., and Spengler, B. A., 1973, Morphology and growth, tumorigenicity, and cytogenetics of human neuroblastoma cells in continuous culture, Cancer Res. 33:2643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Durfee, G. R., 1968, Cytologic techniques, in: Diagnostic Cytology and Its Histopathologic Bases, 2nd ed. ( L. G. Koss, ed.), pp. 597–628, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  4. Farr, G. H., and Hadju, S. I., 1972, Exfoliative cytology of metastatic neuroblastoma, Acta Cytol. 16: 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Giraldo, G., Beth, E., Hirshaut, Y., Aoki, T., Old, L. J., Boyse, E. A., and Chopra, H. C., 1971, Human sarcomas in culture: Foci of altered cells and a common antigen; induction of foci and antigen in human fibroblast cultures by filtrates, J. Exp. Med. 133: 454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hajdu, S. I., and Koss, L. G., 1969, Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic myosarcoma, Acta Cytol. 13: 545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hajdu, S. I., and Merlamed, M. R., 1971, Needle biopsy of primary bone tumors, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 133: 829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hajdu, S. I., and Melamed, M. R., 1973, The diagnostic value of aspiration smears, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 59: 350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hajdu, S. I., and Savino, A., 1973, Cytologic diagnosis of malignant melanoma, Acta Cytol. 17: 320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hajdu, S. I., Bean, M. A., Fogh, J., Hajdu, E. O., and Ricci, A., 1974, Morphology of cultured human tumor cells in Papanicolaou smear, Acta Cytol. 18: 327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayflick, L., and Moorhead, P. S., 1961, The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains, Exp. Cell Res. 25: 585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hlinka, J., and Sanders, F. K., 1972, Real and reflected images of cells in profile. I. A method for the study of cell movement and adhesion, J. Cell Sci. 11: 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Koss, L. G., 1968, Diagnostic Cytology and Its Histopathologic Bases, 2nd ed., Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  14. Leibovitz, A., McCombs, W. B., Johnston, D., McCoy, C. E., and Stinson, J. C., 1973, Two new human cancer cell lines, in vitro 8: 433.Google Scholar
  15. Lerch, V. L., Todd, J., Lattimer, J. K., and Tannenbaum, M., 1970, A technique for the study of human prostatic epithelial cells in vitro by time-lapse cinematography, J. Urol. 104: 564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Papanicolaou, G. N., 1942, New procedure for staining vaginal smears, Science 95: 438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pontén, J., and Macintyre, E. H., 1968, Long term culture of normal and neoplastic human glia, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 74: 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pontén, J., and Saksela, E., 1967, Two established in vitro cell lines from human mesenchymal tumours, Internat. J. Cancer. 2: 434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rosen, P., Hajdu, S. I., Robbins, G. F., and Foote, F. W., 1972, Diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast by aspiration biopsy, Surg. gynecol. Obstet. 134: 837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Spjut, H. J., Fier, D. J., and Ackerman, L. V., 1955, Exfoliative cytology and pulmonary cancer, J. Thorac. Surg. 30: 90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Tumilowicz, J. J., Nichols, W. W., Cholon, J. J., and Greene, A. E., 1970, Definition of a continuous human cell line derived from neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 30: 2110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Wied, G. L., Legoretta, G., Mohr, D., and Rauzy, A., 1962, Cytology of invasive cervical carcinoma and carcinoma in situ, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 97: 759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zajicek, J., 1965, Sampling of cells from human tumors by aspiration biopsy for diagnosis and research, Eur. J. Cancer 1: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Bean
    • 1
  • Steven I. Hajdu
    • 1
  1. 1.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations