Enzyme Hydration and Function

  • John A. Rupley
  • Giorgio Careri
Part of the Progress in Mathematics book series (NSSA)


The character of the surrounding solvent modulates biological processes. Carboxylate ion attack on substituted phenyl esters (Bruice and Turner, 1970), a reaction studied as an enzyme model, changes in rate by four to six powers of ten for change in solvent from water to a dioxane-water mixture. The enthalpy of formation of a peptide hydrogen bond is small, less than 1 kcal/mol, in water, but approaches the gas phase value of 5 kcal/mol in solvents such as carbon tetrachloride (Kresheck and Klotz, 1969). Hydrophobic interactions by definition reflect the solvent environment. The effect of solvent on rates and thermodynamics of reactions can be understood to propagate through macromolecular processes to an influence of solvent on higher levels of biological organization.


Electron Spin Resonance Bulk Water Hydration Shell Hydration Process Hydration Level 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Rupley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giorgio Careri
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Dipartimento di FisicaUniversita di Roma IRomaItaly

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