Interleukins in Experimental Autoimmune Disease

  • Norman Talal
  • Michael Fischbach
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 166)


In autoimmune disorders, the organism’s ability to discriminate self from foreign antigens is disturbed, leading to tissue destruction due to a variety of immunopathologic mechanisms. Autoantibodies and immune complexes may be present in the serum, and target organs may undergo vasculitic destruction or become infiltrated with lymphocytes and plasma cells. Recognition of histocompatibility antigens and Ia antigens on lymphocyte and macrophage membranes is an important regulatory mechanism allowing the immune system to react against viral and other foreign antigens. The immune system is exquisitely regulated. In part, this regulation is dependent upon specific immune response genes which are located within the major histocompatibility complex. Genetic factors influence specialized subpopulations of T-lymphocytes, which function either to suppress or enhance immune responses. Recognition of idiotypic receptors on lymphocyte membranes by antibody or by other lymphocytes can also result in either suppression or priming of an immune response. Since these regulatory mechanisms play an important role in immunologic control, one must look to some derangement in their function to explain the existence of autoimmunity and autoimmune disorders.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Spleen Cell Tritiated Thymidine Rheumatoid Arth Autoimmune Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Smith, K. A. and F. W. Ruscetti. 1981. T cell growth factor and the culture of cloned functional T cells. Adv. Immunol. 31: 137–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrews, B. S., R. A. Eisenberg, A. N. Theofilopoulos, S. Izui, C. B. Wilson, P. J. McConahey, E. D. Murphy, J. B. Roths and F. J. Dixon. 1978. Spontaneous murine lupus-like syndromes. Clinical and immunopathological manifestations in several strains. J. Exp. Med. 148: 1198–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wofsy, D., J. R. Roubinian, J. A. Ledbetter, W. C. Seaman and N. Talai. Thymic influences on autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice. Scand. J. Immunol. (in press)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wofsy, D., E. D. Murphy, J. B. Roths, M. J. Dauphinee, S. B. Kipper and N. Talal. 1981. Deficient interleukin-2 activity in MRL/Mp and C57B1/6J mice bearing the 1pr gene. J. Exp. Med. 154: 1671–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alkan, S. S. 1978. Antigen-induced proliferation assay for mouse T lymphocytes. Response to a monocalent antigen. Eur. J. Immunol. 8: 112–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dauphinee, M. J., S. B. Kipper, D. Wofsy and N. Talai. 1981. Interleukin-2 deficiency is a common feature of autoimmune mice. J. Immunol. 127: 2483–2487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watson, J., S. Gillis, J. Marbrook, D. Mochizuki and K. A. Smith. 1979. Biochemical and biological characterization of lymphocyte regulatory molecules. I. Purification of a class of murine lymphokines. J. Exp. Med. 150: 840.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Watson, J. and D. Mochizuki. 1980. Interleukin-2: A class of T cell growth factors. Immunol. Rev. 51: 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith, K. A. 1980. T cell growth factor. Immunol. Rev. 51: 337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farrar, J. J., P. L. Simon, W. J. Koopman and J. Fuller-Bonar. 1978. Biochemical relationship of thymocyte mitogenic factor and factors enhancing humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. J. Immunol. 121: 1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stotter, H., E. Rude and H. Wagner. 1980. T cell factor (Interleukin-2) allows in vivo induction of T helper cells against heterologous erythrocytes in athymic (nu/nu) mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 10: 719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gillis, S and K. A. Smith. 1977. Long-term culture of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. Nature 268: 154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosenberg, S. A., P. J. Spiess and S. Schwarz. 1978. In vitro growth of murine T cells. I. Production of factors necessary for T cell growth. J. Immunol. 121: 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosenberg, S. A., S. Schwarz and P. J. Spiess. 1978. In vitro growth of murine T cells. II. Growth of in vitro sensitized cells cytotoxic for alloantigens. J. Immunol. 121: 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruscetti, F. A., D. A. Morgan and R. C. Gallo. 1977. Functional and morphologic characterization of human T cells continuously grown in vitro. J. Immunol. 119: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gillis, S., P. E. Baker, R. W. Ruscetti and K. A. Smith. 1978. Long-term culture of human antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell lines. J. Exp. Med. 148: 1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaw, J., V. Monticone, G. Mills and V. Paetkau. 1978. Effects of costimulator on immune responses in vitro. J. Immunol. 120: 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koopman, W. J., J. J. Farrar, J. J. Oppenheim, J. Fuller-Bonar and S. Dougherty. 1977. Association of a low molecular weight helper factor(s) with thymocyte proliferative activity. J. Immunol. 119: 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Draber, P. and P. Kisielow. 1981. Identification and characterization of immature thymocytes responsive to T cell growth factor. Eur. J. Immunol. 11: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wagner, H. and M. Rollinghoff. 1978. T-T cell interactions during in vitro cytotoxic allograft responses. I. Soluble products from activated Lyl+ cells trigger autonomously antigen-primed Ly2, 3 T cells to cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. J. Exp. Med. 148: 1523.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wagner, H., C. Hardt, K. Heeg, M. Rollinghoff and K. Pfizenmaier. 1980. T-cell-derived helper factor allows in vivo induction of cytotoxic T cells in nu/nu mice. Nature 248: 278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baker, P. E. and K. A. Smith. 1980. The potential therapeutic utility of T cell growth factor. Fed. Proc. 39: 803.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bonnard, G. D., K. Yasaka and D. Jacobson. 1979. Ligand-activated T cell growth factor-induced proliferation: Absorption of T cell growth factor by activated T cells. J. Immunol. 123: 2704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beller, D. K. and E. R. Unanue. 1979. Evidence that thymocytes require at least two distinct signals to proliferate. J. Immunol. 123: 2890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Larsson, E. 1981. Mechanism of T cell activation. II. Antigen-and lectin-dependent acquisition of responsiveness to TCGF is nonmitogenic, active response of resting T cells. J. Immunol. 126: 1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Larsson, E., A. Coutinho and C. Martinez-A. 1980. A suggested mechanism for lymphocyte activation: Implications on the acquisition of functional reactivities. Immunol. Rev. 51: 61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith, K. A., S. Gillis, F. W. Ruscetti, P. E. Baker and D. McKenzie. 1979. T cell growth factor: the second signal in the T cell immune response. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 332.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman Talal
    • 1
  • Michael Fischbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and the Veterans AdministrationThe University of Texas Health Science CenterSan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations