The Speed and Temperature Dependence of Rubber Friction and Its Bearing on the Skid Resistance of Tires

  • K. A. Grosch


The observation that the ranking of tire tread compounds in skid tests is largely independent of the testing conditions, such as speed, type of surface, whether the surface is dry or wet and whether locked-wheel braking or cornering tests are carried out is explained by means of the temperature and speed dependence of rubber friction.

It is shown that speed and temperature are in every case related by the WLF equation, provided the sliding speeds are sufficiently low for the temperature rise in the contact area either to be negligible, or to be known. Master curves, therefore, can be obtained under all relevant conditions, and these describe completely the friction between the rubber and the surface under investigation. The shape of the master curve depends on the type of rubber, on the black filler content, on the type of track surface, and on the extent of lubrication.

The range of combined temperature — speed variable, log aTv, achievable in tire skid experiments, is small because of the opposing nature of speed and temperature effects. The crossing of the friction — log aTv curves of different polymers on any one surface is unlikely. If it does occur, as in the case of the comparison of oil extended rubbers with unextended rubbers of the same polymer, it shows itself also in a reversal of the ranking in a skid trial at high speeds.

Because the temperature range is limited on ice, the part of the master curve corresponding to high aTv values comes into play. Since in this region the ranking of polymers, particularly NR and SBR, is reversed, a similar reversal in ranking is also observed in tire skids.

The likely improvement which a particular compound can make to the skid resistance of tires can, therefore, be estimated correctly from simple laboratory comparisons.


Friction Coefficient Master Curve Master Curf High Friction Coefficient Rubber Friction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Maycock, Proceedings of IME, Vol 180, p. 122, 1965-66.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. A. Grosch and G. Maycock, Trans. I.R.I., Vol 42, T 280, 1966.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. K. Meades, Report L.R. 73, Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berks., England, 1967.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. French and R. G. Patton, Fourth Rubber Conference, p. 196, London 1962.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. A. Grosch, Rubber Age, Vol. 99 (10), p. 63, 1967.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. A. Grosch, A. Schallamach, E. Southern and L. P. McSwift, International Rubber Conference, Moscow, 1969.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. A. Grosch, Proceedings at Royal Society, Vol A 274, p. 21, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. L. Williams, R. E. Landel, and F. D. Ferry, Journal American Chemical Society, Vol 77, p. 3701.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. A. Greenwood and D. Tabor, Proceedings of Physical Society, Vol 7, p. 989, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Sabey, Proceedings of Physical Society, Vol 71, p. 979, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. A. Grosch, ACS Conference, Miami Beach 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Gnorich and K. A. Grosch, Journal of the IRI, Vol 6, No. 5, p. 192, 1972.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Southern and A. W. Walker, Nature Physical Science, Vol 237, No. 78, p. 142, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. A. Grosch, Stereo Rubbers, Chapter XIV: “Tires,” ed. W.M. Saltman, Marcel Dekker, N.Y., in press at the time of writing.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Schallamach, Transactions of I.R.I., Vol 32, p. 143, 1956.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. C. Jaeger, Proceedings of Royal Society, N.S.W., Vol 76, p. 203, 1943.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. McCarty, T.J.W. Leland, Tire Science and Technology, Vol 1, No. 2, p. 121, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Rieger, PHD Thesis, Technical University Munich, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. M. Bevilaqua and E. P. Percapio, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Vol 41, p. 832, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. G. Giles, B. E. Sabey and C. H. E. Cardew, “Development and Performance of the portable skid resistance tester.”Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Grosch
    • 1
  1. 1.UNIROYAL European Tire Development CenterAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations