Phospholipids pp 291-294 | Cite as

Liposomes as Carriers for Cosmetics — A Freeze-Fracture Electron Microscopy Study

  • Brigitte Sternberg
  • Michael Schneider


Liposomes first described in 1965 (1) and initially used as excellent models for studying membranes have been considered more frequently as vehicles for medical drugs during the last 10 years (2). In fall 1986 the first commercial product appeared on the market with liposomes as mini — containers; however for cosmetically active principles and not for drugs.


Hyaluronic Acid Purple Membrane Liposome Dispersion Skin Care Product Late Preparation 


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  1. 1.
    Bangham, A.D., Standish, M.M., and Watkins, J.C., 1965, Diffusion of univalent ions across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids. J. Mol. Biol. 13:238–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gregoriadis, G., 1988, Liposomes as Drug Carriers, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mezei, M., 1980, Liposomes — a selective drug delivery system for the topical route of administration. Life Sci. 26:1473–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ostro, M., 1983, Liposomes, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sternberg, B., Gale, P., and Watts, A., 1989, The effect of temperature and protein content on the dispersive properties of bR from H. halabium in reconstituted DMPC complexes free of endogenous purple membrane lipids: A freeze-fracture electron microscopy study, BBA 980:117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brigitte Sternberg
    • 1
  • Michael Schneider
    • 2
  1. 1.Electronmicroscopical Lab., Medical SchoolFriedrich-Schiller-UniversityJenaGDR
  2. 2.Lucas Meyer Gmbh & Co.HamburgGermany

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