Advertisement

Optical Characterization of Semiconductors

  • E. D. Palik
  • R. T. Holm
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 46)

Abstract

Most samples are in the form of a slab or a thin film on a slab. We first review the optical properties of such samples described only by a complex index of refraction ñ = (n + ik). Later, we will determine the origin of n and k in a semiconductor so that we may characterize it in terms of free-carrier density, mobility, donor and acceptor densities, alloy homogeneity, etc.

Keywords

Dielectric Function Carrier Density Free Carrier GaAs Substrate Epitaxial Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Wolter, in Handbuch der Physik, edited by S. Flugge ( Springer, Berlin, 1956 ), p. 461.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. H. Berning in Physics of Thin Films, edited by G. Hass, Vol. 1, p. 69, Academic (1963).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Films, Dover (1965).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Vasicek, Optics of Thin Films, North Holland (1960).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Abeles, in Progress in Optics, Vol. II edited by E. Wolf,p.251 North Holland (1963).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.Y. Fan, Repts. Prog. Phys. 19, 107 (1956).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semiconductors, Academic (1959).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Harris, J. K. Beasley and A. L. Loeb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 604 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. B. Rosenstock (Private Communication).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Hilsum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 181 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Bassani and G. Pastori Parravicini, Electronic States and Optical Transitions in Solids, Pergamon (1975).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Johnson, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, edited by R.K. Willardson and A.C. Beer, Vol. 3, p. 153, Academic (1967).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.D. Palik and D. L. Mitchel, in Physics of Solids in Intense Magnetic Fields, edited by E.D. Haidemenakis, p. 90, Plenum (1969).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Stern, Phys. Rev. 133, A1653 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. W. Christy, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1403 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. S. Mitra, in Optical Properties of Solids, p. 333 Plenum (1969).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. G. Spitzer, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 3, edited by R. K. Willardson and A.C. Beer, p. 17, Academic (1967).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. G. Spitzer, Festkorperprobleme XI, 1 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. S. Mitra, Advances in Physics, 20 359 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, Repts. Prog. Phys. 33, 1193 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Burstein, G. Picus, B. W. Henvis and R. F. Wallis, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1, 65 (1956): G. Picus, E. Burstein and B. W. Henvis 1, 75 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. S. Skolnick, A. C. Carter, Y. Couder and R. A. Stradling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67. 947 (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. F. Black, E. Lanning, and S. Perkowitz, Infrared Phys. 10, 125 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Perkowitz and J. Breecher, Infrared Phys. 13 321 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Cardona, in Solid State Physics, Suppl. II, Modulation Spectroscopy, Academic (1969).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. R. Dixon, in Optical Properties of Solids, edited by S. Nudelman and S. S. Mitra, p. 61, Plenum (1969).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. T. Holm, J. W. Gibson, and E. D. Palik, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 212 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Perkowitz, Phys. Rev. B12, 3210 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. E. Jones and A. R. Hilton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112, 908 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Klotinsh, V. Petrov, and I. Feltinsk, Latv. PSR Zinot. Akad. Vestis, Fiz. Tek. Zinat. Ser. (USSR) No. 3, 40 (1974).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. T. Holm and E. D. Palik, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 889 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Murase, S. Katsyama, Y. Ando and H. Kawamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Tsu, H. Kawamura and L. Esaki, Solid State Comm. 15, 321 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. A. Smith, Semiconductors, Cambridge University Press, (1959).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Donovan and N. H. March, Proc. Phys. Soc. 76, 528 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. Gerlach and P. Grosse, Festkorperproblem XVII, 157 (1977).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. Haga and H. Kimura, J. Phys. Soc. J.pan, 18, 777 (1963); 19, 471, 658, 1596 (1964).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    B. Jensen, Ann. Phys. 80, 284 (1973); 95, 229 (1975); Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 86 291 (1978).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. M. Culpepper and J. R. Dixon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 96 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Perkowitz, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 32 2267 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Sobotta, Phys. Lett. 32A 4 (1970).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. N. Zitter and K. As’Saadi, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 35, 1593 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    W. G. Spitzer and J. W. Whelan, Phys. Rev. 114, 59; (1959).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. G. Mil’vidskii, F. B. Osvenskii, E. P. Rashevskaya and T. G. Yogova, Fiz. Tverd, Tela 7, 3448 (1965); (Soy. Phys. - Solid State 7, 2784 (1966).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    V. Vakulenko and M. P. Lisitsa, Fiz. Tverd, Tela 9, 979 (1967); (Soy. Phys. - Solid State 9, 769 (1967).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. P. Rashevskaya and V. I. Fistul’, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 3618 (1967); (Sov. Phys.-Solid State 9, 2847 (1968).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. F. Edwards and R. D. Maker, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2466 (1962).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. L. Spears and A. J. Strauss, Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, MIT ( 1974: 3 )Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    B. Sherman and J. F. Black, Appl. Opt. 9, 802 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. D. Jungbluth and J. F. Black, Solid State Comm. 13, 1099 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. C. Newman, F. Thompson, M. Hyliands and R. F. Peart, Solid State Comm. 10, 505 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    F. Thompson and R. C. Newman, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 5, 1999 (1972).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    S. R. Morrison, R. C. Newman and F. Thompson, J. Phys. C; Solid State Phys. 7, 633 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    K. Laithwaite, R. C. Newmann, J. F. Angress and G. A. Gledhill, in Gallium Aresnide and Related Compounds (Edinburgh) 1976, edited by C. Hilsom, Conference Series No. 33a ( The Institute of Physics, Bristol 1977 ), p. 133.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. M. Kreitman, K. K. Bajaj and C. W. Litton, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 225 (1978).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. D. McCombe, Characterization of III-V Materials, NRL Memorandum Report 3701 (Feb. 1978).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe and D. M. Korn, Proc. 13th Conf. Phys. Semicond., Rome ( Tipografia, Rome, 1976 ), p. 623.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    R. A. Cooke, R. A. Hoult, R. F. Kirkman and R. A. Stradling, J. Phys. D: Appl Phys. 11, 945 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. H. M. Stoelinga, D. M. Larsen, W. Walukiewicz and R. L. Aggarwal, J. Phys. Chem. Solids (in press).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. A. Stradling, L. Eaves, R. A. Hoult, N. Miura, P. E. Simmonds and C. C. Bradley, in Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds, Conference Series No. 17, ( The Institute of Physics, London, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    E. D. Palik, R. T. Holm and J. W. Gibson, Thin Solid Films 47, 167 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    B. Molnar and T. A. Kennedy, J. Electrochem. Soc., (in press).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    J.K. Furdyna, private communcation.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. Kaplan and R. J. Wagner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 899 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Botineau, F. Gires and C. Vanneste, C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 278B, 171 (1974).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Azema, J. Botineau, F. Gires, A. Saissy and C. Vanneste, Appl. Phys. 9, 47 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. T. Holm and J. A. Calviello, J. Appl. Phys. (in press).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. L. Ginzburg, Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves, Gordon and Breach (1960).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. D. Taylor and C. W. Harrison, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2676 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    F. Flores, F. Garcia-Moliner and G. Navascues, Surf. Sci. 24, 61 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. Navascues and F. Flores, Solid State Comm. 9, 1267 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    N. S. Kochneva and V. M. Kochetkov, Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 9, 1821 (1975).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    W. E. TEnnant and J. A. Cape, Appl. Phys. Letters 26, 694 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. M. Amirtharaj, B. J. Bean and S. Perkowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 939 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. Horowitz, Phys. Stat. Sol. 39, 533 (1977).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    G. K. Hubler and P. R. Malmberg, private communication.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    V. M. Gusev, L. N. Strel’tsov and I. B. Khaibullin, Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 5, 832 (1971); Sov. Phys - Semicond. 5, 737 (1971).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    W. G. Spitzer, C. N. Waddell, G. H. Narayanan, J. E. Fredrickson and S. Prussin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 623 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. K. Hubler, C. N. Waddell, W. G. Spitzer, R. G. Wilson, S. Prussin and J. E. Fredrickson, (private communication).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. H. Kachare, W. G. Spitzer, F. K. Euler and A.Kahan, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2938 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    A. H. Kachare, W. G. Spitzer, J. E. Fredrickson and F. K. Euler, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5374 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. T. Holm, J. W. Gibson and E. D. Palik, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 811 (1975).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    B. Molnar, Report of NRL Progress, March 1975, p. 21.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. E. Aspnes, in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. 0. Seraphin, North Holland (1976) p. 799.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    W. A. Pliskin, in Physical Measurement and Analysis of Thin Films, edited by E. M. Must and W. G. Guldner, p. 1, Plenum (1969).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    D. E. Aspnes, B. Schwartz, A. A. Stdna, L. Derick and L. A. Koszi, J. Appl. Phys. 48 3510 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. E. Pedinoff, M. Braunstein, and 0. M. Stafsudd, Appl. Opt. 16, 2849 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    H. R. Philipp, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2835 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    B. C. Dobbs, W. J. Anderson and Y. S. Park, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 5052 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. Fahrenfort, Spectrochem. Acta. 17, 698 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. Fahrenfort andW. M. Visser, Spectrochm. Acta 18, 1103 (1962); 21, 1433 (1965).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    N. J. Harrick Internal Reflection Spectroscopy, Wiley (1967).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    D. C. Gupta, Solid State Electr. 13, 543 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    W. G. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, Phys Rev. 106, 882 (1957).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    G. T. Ayoub and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1430 (1977). Abstract.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    D. E. Sawyer and D. W. Berning, NBS Special Publication 400–24 (Feb. 1977).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D.E. Sawyer, D. W. Berning and D. C. Lewis, Solid State Technol. Vol. 20, No. 6, p. 37 (1977).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. W. Sawyer and D. W. Berning, Proc. IEEE 64 1634 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    H. F. Matare, Solid State Technology, p. 56 (Sept. 1977).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    D.L. Lile and N. M. Davis, in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Vol. 62, Modern Utilization of Infrared Technology, p. 117 (1975).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. W. Philbrick and T. H. Di Stefano, in Proceedings of the 13th Annual Reliability Physics Conference, Las Vegas 1975,p.159; T. H. DiStefano, NBS Special Publication 400–23, p. 197 (March 1976).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    R. F. Greene, J. N. Zemel, A. D’Amico and N. Ginsburg, (private communication).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    D. Peterman and W. Workman, Microelectronics and Reliability 6, 307 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    S. V. Bearse, Microwaves, Jan. 1976, P. 14.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    H. Kaplan, in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Vol. 62, Modern Utilization of Infrared Technology, p. 238 (1975).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    E. E. Anderson and P. S. Castro, in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Vol 62, Modern Utilization of Infrared Technology, p. 231 (1975).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    A. Marek, A. A. Jaecklin and J. Cornu, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices ED-21, 54 (1974).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Balkanski, K. P. Jain, R. Beserman and M. Jouanne, Phys. Rev. B12, 4328 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    R. Beserman and T. Bernstein, J. Appl. Phys. 48 1548 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Kotthaus, in Second International Conference of “Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems”, Berchtesgaden, (1977); Surface Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    D. C. Tsui, S. J. Allen, R. A. Logan, A. Kangar and S. N. Coppersmith, in Second International Conference of “Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems”, Berchtesgaden, (1977); Surf. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    P. Kneschaurek, in Second International Conference of “Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems”, Berchtesgaden, (1977); Surf. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    C. C. Hu, J. Pearse, K. M. Cham and R. G. Wheeler, in Second International Conference of “Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems”, Bechtesgaden, (1977); Surf. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    E. Gornik and D. C. Tsui, in Second International Conference of “Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems”, Berchtesgaden, (1977); Surf. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    J. S. Blakemore, Semiconductor Statistics, p. 75, Pergamon (1962).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    R. F. Leheny and J. Shah, Solid State Electr. 21, 167 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    J. O. Dimmock, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 3, edited by R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer, p. 290, Academic (1967).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    W. F. Hall, W. E. Tennant, J. A. Cape and J. S. Harris, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 914 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. P. van der Ziel andA. C. Cossard, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3018 (1977).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    B. 0. Seraphin, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, edited by R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer, Vol. 9, p. 1, Academic (1972).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    P. E. Vanier, F. H. Pollak and P. M. Raccah, Appl. Opt. 16. 2858 (1977).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    N. Bottka and M. Hills, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 291 (1978).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    D. J. Ashen, P. J. Dean, D. T. J. Hurle, J. B. Mullin and A. M. White, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 1041 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    P. W. Yu and Y. S. Park, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2434 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    P. W. Yu, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 5043 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    S. G. Bishop, J. Comas, S Sundaram and B. D. McCombe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 845 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    S. B. Nam, D. W. Langer, D. L. Kingston and M. J. Luciano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 652 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. D. Palik
    • 1
  • R. T. Holm
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Research LaboratoryUSA

Personalised recommendations