Advertisement

Two-Probe (Spreading Resistance) Measurements for Evaluation of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

  • James R. Ehrstein
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 46)

Abstract

Interest in two-probe resistance, (spreading resistance) measurements dates back perhaps 20 years. It arose at a time when the development of a number of techniques for measuring resistivity and resistivity profiles was being pursued, primarily for germanium and silicon technology. In the early days of its use, diffusions were relatively deep and control of epitaxial resistivity was an important problem. The structures of interest have changed noticeably in the interveninng years. Ion implantation has come into regular use and the dimensional scale of diffusions and epitaxy have been considerably reduced.

Keywords

Depth Profile Sheet Resistance Contact Radius Resistivity Profile Dopant Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    R. Holm, Electric Contacts Theory and Application ( Springer Verlag, New York 1967 ).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. R. Ehrstein, Semiconductor Silicon 1977, Proceedings Volume 77–2, The Electrochemical Society, 377 (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. R. Ehrstein, Semiconductor Measurement Technology: Spreading Resistance Symposium, NBS Special Publication 400–10 (December 1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. F., C. P. Schneider and M. R. Poponiak, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 721 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.G. Mazur and D.H. Dickey, J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 255 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Kramer and L. J. Van Ruyven, Solid State Electronics 15, 757, (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. H. Tong and M. Poponiak, IBM Technical Report 22–507 (1967).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.J. Fonash, Spreading Resistance Symposium, op. cit., 17.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.S. Smith, Solid State Physics, (F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, Eds.), 6, 175, Academic Press, (1958).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.A. Keenan, P.A. Schumann, A.H. Tong, R.P. Phillips, Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors, ( The Electrochemical Society, 1969 ), 263.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. K. Henisch, Rectifying Contacts to Semiconductors, 179, Oxford Univ. Press, (1957).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. M. Andrews, and M.P. Lepselter, Solid State Elec. 13, 1011 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Bulthuis, Philips Res. Report 23, 25 (1968).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Balslev, Phys. Rev. 143, 636 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.J. Severin, Spreading Resistance Symposium, ma. cit., 45.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.H. Dickey, Abstract #57, Pittsburgh Meeting, The Electrochemical Society (1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.H. Dickey, Spreading Resistance Symposium, op. cit., 45.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.A. Schumann and E.E. Gardner, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 87 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E.E. Gardner and P.A. Schumann, Solid State Electronics 12, 371 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.H. Yeh and K.H. Khokani, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 1461 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.M. Hu, Solid State Electronics 15, 809 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.A., Lee Spreading Resistance Symp., op. cit., 75.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.H. Dickey and J.R. Ehrstein, Semiconductor Measurement Technology: Spreading Resistance Analysis for Silicon Layers with Non-Uniform Resistivity, NBS Spec. Pub. 400–48, to be published.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.S. Leong, S.C. Choo and L.S. Tau, Solid State Elec. 21, 933 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.C. Choo, M.S. Leong and K.L. Kuan, Solid State Electronics 19 561 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E.D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems, 54–57, Dover (1968).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.C. D’Avonzo, R.D. Rung, R.W. Dutton, Tech. Rep. 5013–2, Stanford Elec. Lab. Stanford Univ. (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.C. D’Avonzo, R.D. Rung, A. Gat, R.W. Dutton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1170 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. Tannenbaum, Solid State Elec. 2, 123 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.P. Donavan, R.A. Evans, NBS Spec. Pub. 337, (C.A. Marsden, Ed.) 123–131 (1970).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.G. Mazur, Operators Manual for ASR-100 Spreading Resistance Instrument.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P.M. Punchon, Spreading Resistance Symposium, op. cit. 209.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G.A. Gruber, Spreading Resistance Symposium op. cit. 209.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.G. Mazur, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 255 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T.L. Chu and R.L. Ray. Solid State Tech. 37–40, (Sept. 1971).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J.R. Edwards and H.E. Nigh, Spreading Resistance Symposium, op. cit., 179.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    F.W. Voltmer, and H.J. Ruiz, Spreading Resistance Symp., op. cit. 191.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Murgai, H.C. Gatos, A.F. With, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 224 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Vieweg-Gutberlet, Spreading Resistance Symp., op. cit., 185.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W.H. Karstaedt and K.S. Tarnega, Proc. of the Annual Mtg. IEEE Inst. and App. Soc., 882, IEEE (1977).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Assour, Spreading Resistance Symp., op. cit. 201.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    B.L. Morris and P.H. Langer, SRPROF, Spreading Resistance Symp., 22. cit. 63.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Y. Iida, H. Abe, and M. Kondo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 1118 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    N.H. Schroen, Spreading Resistance Symp. op. cit. 235.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    W.H. Schroen, G.A. Lee and R.W. Voltmer, Spreading Resistance Symp. op. cit. 155.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kudoh, K. Uda, Y. Ikushima and M. Kamoshida, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1751 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Lindhard, J. Scharff, and H.E. Schiott, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk 33, 14 (1963).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. Gibbons, W. Johnson and S. Mylroie, Projected Range Statistics, ( Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross 1975 ).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    F. Mayer and S. Schwarzman, Spreading Resistance Symp., op. cit., 123Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A.H. Tong, E. Gorey, and C.P. Schneider, Rev. Scient. Instrum. 43, 320 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.L. Deines, E.F. Gorey, A.E. Michel and M.R. Poponiak, Spreading Resistance Symp. 2R. cit. 169.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S.S. Li and W.R. Thurber, Solid State Elec. 20, 609 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    W.R. Thurber, R.L. Mattis and Y.M. Liu, Proc. of the Topical Cong. on Char. Tech. for Sem. Mat. and Dev., (P. Barnes and G. Rozgonyi, Eds.), 81 ( Electrochem. Soc. 1978 ).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. Wagner, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 1570 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    F. Mousty, P. Ostoja, and L. Passari, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4576 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    G. Baccarani and P. Ostoja, Solid State Elec. 18, 579 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    J.C. Irvin, Bell System Tech. J. 41, 387 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Ehrstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Electron Devices Division Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering National Engineering LaboratoryNational Bureau of StandardsUSA

Personalised recommendations