Skip to main content

Studies in Endemic Genu Valgum — A Manifestation of Fluoride Toxicity in India

  • Chapter
Nutritional Biochemistry and Pathology

Part of the book series: Nutrition and Food Science ((NFS,volume 3))


Fluoride is distributed ubiquitously in nature in several forms and enters the human system by several routes. The most important of these is ingestion of fluoride through drinking water. High levels of fluoride in water have been described from all the continents in the world1. However, disease in man due to fluoride toxicity in endemic forms has been identified in only some countries of which India stands distinctly. The disease endemic fluorosis is the result of chronic excessive accumulation of environmental fluoride in human organs; the most important of which is the skeletal system. The basic pathology of fluoride toxicity lies in its affinity for bone wherein the former enters as an integral component of the apatite crystal. Extensive epidemiological studies carried out form time to time in the rural parts of India had indicated that endemic fluorosis is characterized by skeletal changes such as kyphosis, exostoses formation, cervical spondylopathy, sclerosis and also calcification of ligaments, tendons, interosseous membranes and muscular attachments2, 3, 4. In a majority of earlier studies the fluoride content of water in endemic areas had been up to 16 ppm.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. WHO. Fluoride and Human Health. WHO Monograph Series no. 59, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Shortt, H.E., Pandit, C.G., and Raghavachari, T.N.S., Ind. Med. Gaz., 72: 396 (1937).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Singh, A. and Jolly, S.S., Q.J. Med., 30: 357 (1961).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Siddiqui, A.H., Brit. Med. J., 2: 1408 (1955).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Krishnamachari, D.A.V.R. and Kamala Krishnaswamy. Lancet. 2: 877

    Google Scholar 

  6. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. and Kamala Krishnaswamy. Ind. J. Med. Res., 62: 1415 (1974).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Sivakumar, B. and Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. Horm. Metab. Res., 8: 317 (1976).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Sivakumar, B. Horm. Metab. Res., 9: 436 (1977).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. and Sivakumar, B. Fluoride., 9: 185 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  10. Narasinga Rao., B.S., Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. and Vijayasarathy, C. Brit. J. Nutr. (In Press), 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. Ind. J. Med. Res., 64: 284 (1976).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Deosthale, Y.G., Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. and Belavady, B. Ind. J. Agri. Sci., 47: 333 (1977).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Lakshmaiaha, N. and Srikantia, S.G. Ind. J. Med. Res., 65: 543 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. Proc. Symp. Fluorosis., Hyd., 519: (1974).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. Ind. J. Med. Res., 65: 476 (1975).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1980 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R. (1980). Studies in Endemic Genu Valgum — A Manifestation of Fluoride Toxicity in India. In: Santos, W., Lopes, N., Barbosa, J.J., Chaves, D., Valente, J.C. (eds) Nutritional Biochemistry and Pathology. Nutrition and Food Science, vol 3. Springer, Boston, MA.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4757-1351-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-1349-7

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics