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Smelting of Primary Ingots and Their Remelting in Plasma-Arc Furnaces with Cooled Molds

  • B. E. Paton
  • V. I. Lakomsky

Abstract

At the present time the overwhelming majority of titanium and titanium alloy ingots are produced in vacuum-arc furnaces. Double remelting is the typical method of producing sound ingots. Primary ingots are smelted from sponge, scrap, and alloying elements compressed in the electrode or fed into the melting zone as separate portions of the lump charge. Smelted ingots are subjected to secondary remelting for the purpose of homogenization, removal of structural defects, and improvement of surface quality, but in spite of the double remelting of the metal we cannot completely get rid of the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the ingots.

Keywords

Free Convection Metal Pool Shrinkage Cavity Liquid Titanium Hollow Ingot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    V. A. Garmata, B. S. Gulyanitsky, V. Y. Kremnik,“Metallurgy of Titanium,” Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. E. Paton, V. I. Lakomsky, D. A. Dudko,“Plasma-arc remelting of metal and alloys,” Automatic Welding, No. 8, 1966.Google Scholar
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    B. E. Paton, V. I. Lakomsky, A. I. Chvertko, and G. B. Asyants, “Plasma-arc furnaces with copper water-cooled mold.” Stal’, No 6, pp. 507–511, 1971.Google Scholar
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    V. I. Lakomsky and N. N. Kalinuk, “Solubility of hydrogen in the liquid titanium,” Automatic Welding, No. 9, pp. 31–35, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. E. Paton
    • 1
  • V. I. Lakomsky
    • 1
  1. 1.E. O. Paton Electric Welding InstituteAcademy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSRUkraine

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