Advertisement

Diversity, Ecology, and Taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria

  • Brian A. Whitton
Part of the Biotechnology Handbooks book series (BTHA, volume 6)

Abstract

The cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes possessing the ability to synthesize chlorophyll a and at least one phycobilin pigment; typically water acts as the electron donor during photosynthesis, leading to the release of oxygen. They are by far the largest group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, as judged by their widespread occurrence, frequent abundance, and morphological diversity. Not only are they represented at the present day in most types of illuminated environment, except for those at lower pH values, but they have one of the longest geological records (Schopf and Walter, 1982). Much of the earth’s original atmospheric oxygen was probably formed by organisms quite similar to modern cyanobacteria (Knoll, 1985) and they are still responsible for a considerable proportion of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in the oceans.

Keywords

Nitrogen Fixation Combine Nitrogen Unicellular Cyanobacterium Anabaena Variabilis Waste Stabilization Pond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, D. G., and Carr, N. G., 1981, The developmental biology of heterocyst and akinete formation in cyanobacteria, CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 9: 45–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anagnostidis, K., and Komarek, J., 1985, Modern approach to the classification systems of cyanophytes 1—Introduction, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 71: 291–302.Google Scholar
  3. Anagnostidis, K., and Komarek, J., 1988, Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes 3—Oscillatoriales, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 80: 327–472.Google Scholar
  4. Barroin, G., and Feuillade, M., 1986, Hydrogen peroxide as potential algicide for Oscillatoria rubescens D.C., Water Res. 20: 619–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batterton, J. C., Jr., and Van Baalen, C., 1968, Phosphorus deficiency and phosphate uptake in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 341–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauld, J., 1981, Occurrence of benthic microbial mats in saline lakes, Hydrobiologia 81: 87–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman, B., and Carpenter, E. J., 1991, Nitrogenase confined to randomly distributed trichomes in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebauti, J. Phycol. 27: 158–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloor, S., and England, R. R., 1989, Antibiotic production by the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum, J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumwald, E., and Tel-Or, E., 1982, Osmoregulation and cell composition in salt adaptation of Nostoc muscorum, Arch. Microbiol. 132: 168–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blumwald, E., and Tel-Or, E., 1984, Salt adaptation of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 growing in a continuous culture (turbidostat), Plant Physiol. 74: 183–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borbely, G., Suranyi, G., Korcz, A., and Palfi, Z., 1985, Effect of heat shock on protein synthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301, J. Bacteriol. 161: 1125–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bornet, E., and Flahault, C., 1886a, Revision des Nostocacées Heterocystées, A.. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. VII 3: 323–381.Google Scholar
  13. Bornet, E., and Flahault, C., 1886b, Revision des Nostocacées Heterocystées, A.. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. VII 4: 343–373.Google Scholar
  14. Bornet, E., and Flahault, C., 1887, Revision des Nostocacées Heterocystées, A.. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. VII 5: 51–129.Google Scholar
  15. Bornet, E., and Flahault, C., 1888, Revision des Nostocacées Heterocystées, A.. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. VII 7: 177–262.Google Scholar
  16. Borowitzka, L. A., 1986, Osmoregulation in blue-green algae, Prog. Phycol. Res. 4: 243–256.Google Scholar
  17. Bose, P., Nagpal, U. S., Nagpal, Venkataraman, G. S., and Goyal, S. K., 1971, Solubilization of tricalcium phosphate by blue-green algae, Curr. Sci. 7: 165–166.Google Scholar
  18. Bottomley, P. J., Grillo, J. F., Van Baalen, C., and Tabita, R., 1979, Synthesis of nitrogenase and heterocysts by Anabaena sp. CA in the presence of high levels of ammonia, J. Bacteriol. 140: 938–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bourrelly, P., 1970/1985, Les Algues d’Eau Douce. III Les Algues Bleues et Rouges, les Eugleniens, Peridiniens et Cryptomonadines, N. Boubée, Paris.Google Scholar
  20. Boyer, G. L., Gillam, A. H., and Trick, C., 1987, Iron chelation and uptake, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 415–436.Google Scholar
  21. Brand, F., 1900, Der Formenkreis von Gloeocapsa alpina, Bot. Centralbl. 15: 152–159.Google Scholar
  22. Brock, T. D., 1978, Thermophilic Microorganisms and Life at High Temperatures, Springer, New York, 633 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burger-Wiersma, Veenhuis, M., Korthals, H. J., van de Wiel, C. C. M., and Mur, L. R., 1986, A new prokaryote containing chlorophylls a and b, Nature 320: 262–264.Google Scholar
  24. Burger-Wiersma, T., Stal, L. J., and Mur, L. C., 1989, Prochlorothrix hollandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a filamentous oxygenic photoautotrophic procaryote containing chlorophylls a and b: Assignment to Prochlorotrichaceae fam. nov. and order Prochlorales Florenzano, Balloni, and Materassi 1986, with emendation of the ordinal description, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 250–257.Google Scholar
  25. Bustos, S. A., Schaeffer, M. R., and Goulden, S. S., 1990, Different and rapid responses of four cyanobacterial psbA transcripts to changes in light intensity, J. Bacteriol. 172: 1998–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caceres, O., and Reynolds, C. S., 1984, Some effects of artificially-enhanced anoxia on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. emend. Elenkin, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 293: 419–477.Google Scholar
  27. Cameron, H. J., and Julian, G. R., 1988, Utilization of hydroxyapatite by cyanobacteria as their sole source of phosphate and calcium, Plant Soil 109: 123–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cameron, R. E., 1969, Abundance of Microflora in Soils of Desert Regions, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Technical Report No. 32–1378, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.Google Scholar
  29. Canabaeus, L., 1929, Über die Heterocysten und Gasvakuolen der Blaualgen und ihre Beziehung zueinander. Pflanzenforschung 13, Fisher, Jena.Google Scholar
  30. Cano, M. M. S., de Mulé, M. C. Z., de Caire, G. Z., and de Halperin, D. R., 1990, Inhibition of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus by phenolic compounds from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum, J. Appi. Phycol. 2: 79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Capone, D. G., and Carpenter, E. J., 1982, Nitrogen fixation in the marine environment. Science ( Wash. D.C. ) 21: 1140–1142.Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter, E. J., 1983, Nitrogen fixation by marine Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) in the world’s oceans, in: Nitrogen in the Marine Environment ( E. J. Carpenter and D. G. Capone, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 65–104.Google Scholar
  33. Carr, N. G., and Wyman, M., 1986, Cyanobacteria: Their biology in relation to oceanic picoplankton, Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214: 159–204.Google Scholar
  34. Castenholz, R. W., 1982, Motility and taxes, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 413–439.Google Scholar
  35. Castenholz, R. W., 1989a, Subsection III. Order Oscillatoriales, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1771–1780.Google Scholar
  36. Castenholz, R. W., 1989b, Subsection IV. Order Nostocales, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1780–1793.Google Scholar
  37. Castenholz, R. W., 1989c, Subsection V. Order Stigeonematales, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1780–1799.Google Scholar
  38. Castenholz, R. W., and Waterbury, J. B., 1989a, Cyanobacteria, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1710–1727.Google Scholar
  39. Castenholz, R. W., and Waterbury, J. B., 1989b, Taxa of the cyanobacteria, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1727–1728.Google Scholar
  40. Castenholz, R. W., and Wickstrom, C. E., 1975, Thermal streams, in: River Ecology ( B. A. Whitton, ed.), pp. 264–284, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Chisholm, S. W., Olson, R. J., Zettler, E. R., Goericke, R., Waterbury, J. B., and Welschmeyer, N. A., 1988, A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone, Nature 334: 340–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarke, S. E., Stuart, J., and Sanders-Loehr, J., 1987, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 917–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cmiech, H. A., Reynolds, C. S., and Leedale, G. F., 1984, Seasonal periodicity, heterocyst differentiation and sporulation in planktonic Cyanophyceae in a shallow lake with special reference to Anabaena solitaria, Br. Phycol. J. 19: 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cohen, Y., 1989, Photosynthesis in cyanobacterial mats and its relation to the sulfur cycle: A model for microbial sulfur interactions, in: Microbial Mats ( Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 22–36.Google Scholar
  45. Cohen, Y., and Rosenberg, E. (eds.), 1989, Microbial Mats, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  46. Cohen, Y., Padan, E., and Shilo, M., 1975, Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, J. Bacteriol. 123: 855–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cohen, Y., J¢rgensen, B. B., Revsbech, N. P., and Poplawski, R., 1986, Adaptation to hydrogen sulfide of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis among cyanobacteria, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 398–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Colman, B., 1989, Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and the suppression of photorespiration in the cyanobacteria, Aquat. Bot. 34: 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Daday, A., Mackerras, A. H., and Smith, G. D., 1988, A role for nickel in cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation and growth via cyanophycin metabolism, J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 2659–2663.Google Scholar
  50. De, P. K., 1939, The role of blue-green algae in nitrogen fixation in rice fields, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 127B: 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Desikachary, T. V., 1946, Germination of the heterocyst in two members of the Rivulariaceae Gloeotrichia raciborskii and Rivularia mangini Frémy, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 25: 3–17.Google Scholar
  52. Desikachary, T. V., 1959, Cyanophyta, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Dodds, W. K., and Castenholz, R. W., 1987, Effects of grazing and light on the growth of Nostocpruniforme (Cyanobacteria), Br. Phycol. J. 23: 219–227.Google Scholar
  53. Douglas, D., Peat, A., and Whitton, B. A., 1986, Influence of iron status on structure of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Calothrix parietina, Cytobios 47: 155–165.Google Scholar
  54. Douglas, S. E., and Carr, N. G., 1988, Examination of genetic relatedness of marine Synechococcus spp. by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 3071–3078.Google Scholar
  55. Drews, G., and Weckesser, J., 1982, Function, structure and composition of cell walls and external layers, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 333–357.Google Scholar
  56. Drouet, F., and Daily, W. A., 1956, Revision of the coccoid Myxophyceae, Butler Univ. Stud. 10: 1–218.Google Scholar
  57. Dyck, L. A., and Speziale, B. J., 1990, Infestations of Lyngbya wollei: Structural and phenological characteristics, J. Phycol. 26(2) Suppl. 10.Google Scholar
  58. Eker, A. P. M., Kooiman, P., Hessels, J. K. C., and Yasui, A., 1990, DNA photoreeactivating enzyme from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans, J. Biol. Chem. 265: 8009–8015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Elenkin, A. A., 1936/1938/1949, Sinenzelenye vodoroslii SSSR. Monographia Algarum Cyanophycearum Aquidulcium et Terrestrium in Finibus URSS Inventarum, Pars Generalis, Pars Specialis I et II,Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow.Google Scholar
  60. Entsch, B., Sim, R. G., and Hatcher, B. G., 1983, Indications from photosynthetic components that iron is a limiting nutrient in primary producers on coral reefs, Mar. Biol. 73: 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ercegovic, A., 1929, Dalmatella, nouvelle genre des cyanophycées lithophytes de la côte Adriatique, Acta Bot. Inst. Bot. Univ. Zagreb 4: 35–41.Google Scholar
  62. Ernst, W. H. 0., 1974, Schwermetallvegetation der Erde, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. Falkner, G., Falkner, R., Graffius, D., and Strasser, P., 1984, Bioenergetic and ecological aspects of phosphate uptake by blue-green algae, Arch. Hydrobiol. 101: 89–99.Google Scholar
  63. Falkner, G., Falkner, R., and Schwab, A. J., 1989, Bioenergetic characterization of transient state phosphate uptake by the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans, Arch. Microbiol. 152: 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fallon, R. D., and Brock, T. D., 1981, Overwintering of Microcystis in Lake Mendota, Freshwater Biol. 11: 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fattom, A., and Shilo, M., 1984, Hydrophobicity as an adhesion mechanism of benthic cyanobacteria, Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 135–143.Google Scholar
  66. Fay, P., Stewart, W. D. P., Walsby, A. E., and Fogg, G. E., 1968, Is the heterocyst the site of nitrogen fixation in blue-green algae? Nature (London) 220: 810–812.Google Scholar
  67. Federspiel, N. A., and Grossman, A. R., 1990, Characterization of the light-regulated operon encoding the phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins from the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, J. Bacterial. 172: 4072–4081.Google Scholar
  68. Fisher, R. W., and Wolk, C. P., 1976, Substance stimulating the differentiation of spores of the blue-green alga, Cylindrospermum licheniforme, Nature 259: 394–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fitzgerald, G. P., 1966, Use of potassium permanganate for control of problem algae,/ Am. Water Works Assoc. 58: 609–614.Google Scholar
  70. Florenzano, G. C. S., Pelosi, E., and Vincenzini, M., 1985, Cyanospira rippkae and Cyanospira capsulata (gen. nov. and spp. nov.): New filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria from Magadi Lake (Kenya), Arch. Microbial. 140: 301–306.Google Scholar
  71. Fogg, G. E., 1975, Algal Cultures and Phytoplankton Ecology, 2nd ed., University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  72. Fogg, G. E., 1987, Marine planktonic cyanobacteria, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 393–414.Google Scholar
  73. Fogg, G. E., Stewart, W. D. P., and Fay, P., 1973, The Blue-Green Algae, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  74. Foster, E. W., Barton, L. L., and Johnson, G. V., 1988, Differential cellular response of Anabaena variabilis to iron, J. Plant Nutr. 11: 1193–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Fox, G. E., Stackebrandt, E., Hespell, R. B., Gibson, J., Maniloff, J., Dyer, T. A., Wolfe, R. S., Balch, W. E., Tanner, R. S., Magrum, L. J., Zablen, L. B., Blaemore, R. Gupta, R., Bonen, L., Lewis, B. J., Stahl, D. A., Luehrsen, K. R., Chen, K. N., and Woese, C. R., 1980, The phylogeny of procaryotes, Science 209: 457–463.Google Scholar
  76. Foy, R. H., 1980, The influence of surface to volume ratio on the growth rates of planktonic blue-green algae, Br. Phycol. J. 15: 278–289.Google Scholar
  77. Foy, R. H., and Smith, R. V., 1980, The role of carbohydrate accumulation in the growth of planktonic Oscillatoria species, Br. Phycol. J. 13: 139–150.Google Scholar
  78. Frémy, P., 1929, Les Myxophycées de l’Afrique Equatoriale Française, Archives de Botanique III, Mémoire No. 2.Google Scholar
  79. Frémy, P., 1929–1933, Cyanophycées des Côtes d’Europe, Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Math. Cherbourg 41: 1–236.Google Scholar
  80. Friedmann, E. I., 1980, Endolithic microorganisms in the Antarctic desert ecosystem, Orig. Life 10: 223–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Friedmann, E. I., 1982, Endolithic microorganisms in the Antarctic cold desert, Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 215: 1045–1053.Google Scholar
  82. Friedmann, E. I., and Borowitzka, L. J., 1982, The symposium on taxonomic concepts in bluegreen algae: Towards a compromise with the Bacteriological Code? Taxon 31: 673–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Friedmann, E. I., and Galun, M., 1974, Desert algae, lichens and fungi, in: Desert Biology ( G. W. Brown, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 165–212.Google Scholar
  84. Friedmann, E. I., and Ocampo, R., 1976, Endolithic blue-green algae in the dry valleys: Primary producers in the Antarctic desert ecosystem, Science 193: 1247–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fritsch, F. E., 1945, The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae, Volume II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  86. Fulda, S., Hagemann, M., and Libbert, E., 1990, Release of glycosylglycerol from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis spec. SAG 92.79 by hypoosmotic shock, Arch. Microbiol. 153: 405–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gallon, J. R., 1990, The physiology and biochemistry of N2 fixation by nonheterocystous cyanobacteria, Phykos 28: 18–46.Google Scholar
  88. Gallon, J. R., and Chaplin, A. E., 1988, Recent studies on N2 fixation by nonheterocystous cyanobacteria, in: Nitrogen Fixation: One hundred years After ( H. Bothe, F. J. de Bruyn, and W. E. Newton, eds.) pp. 183–188, Gustav Fisher, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  89. Gallon, J. R., Kurz, W. G. W., and LaRue, T. A., 1975, The physiology of nitrogen fixation by a Gloeocapsa sp., in: Nitrogen Fixation in Free-Living Microorganisms (W. D. P. Stewart, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 159–173.Google Scholar
  90. Garcia-Pichel, F., and Castenholz, R. W., 1991, Characterization and biological implications of scytonemin, a cyanobacterial sheath pigment, J. Phycol. 27: 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Geitler, L., 1932, Cyanophyceae, in: Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora, Volume 14, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  92. Gemsch, W., 1943, Vergleichende Untersuchungen über Membranfarbung and Membranfarbstoffe in der Gattungen Gloeocapsa Kütz. und Scytonema Ag., Ber. Schweiz. Ges. 53: 121–192.Google Scholar
  93. Ghiorse, W. C., 1989, Manganese and iron as physiological electron donors and acceptors in aerobic—anaerobic transition zones, in: Microbial Mats (Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 163–169.Google Scholar
  94. Gibson, C. E., and Smith, R. V., 1982, Freshwater plankton, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.) pp. 463–490, Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  95. Giovannoni, S. J., Turner, S., Olsen, G. J., Barns, S., Lane, D. J., and Pace, N. R., 1988, Evolutionary relationships among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts, J. Bacteriol. 170: 3584–3592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Glover, H. E., 1986, The physiology and ecology of marine cyanobacteria, Synechococcus spp., Adv. Aquat. Microbiol. 3: 49–107.Google Scholar
  97. Golden, J. W., and Wiest, D. R., 1988, Genome rearrangement and nitrogen fixation in Anabaena blocked by inactivation of xisA gene, Science 242: 1421–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Golden, J. W., Robinson, S. J., and Haselkorn, R., 1985, Rearrangement of nitrogen fixation genes during differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena, Nature 314: 419–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Golubic, S., and Focke, J. A., 1978, Phormidium hendersonii Howe: Identity and significance of a modern stromatolite building microorganism, J. Sediment. Petrol. 48: 751–764.Google Scholar
  100. Gomont, M., 1892, Monographie des Oscillariées, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. Bot. 9: 49–53.Google Scholar
  101. Grainger, S. L. J., Peat, A., Tiwari, D. N., and Whitton, B. A., 1989, Phosphomonoesterase activity of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Calothrix parietina, Microbios 59: 7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Grillo, J. F., and Gibson, J., 1979, Regulation of phosphate accumulation in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus, J. Bacteriol. 140: 508–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Grobbelaar, N., Huang, T.-C., Lin, H.-Y., and Chow, T.J., 1987, Dinitrogen-fixing endogenous rhythm in Synechococcus RF-1, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37: 173–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Häder, D.-P., 1987, Photomovement, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 325–345.Google Scholar
  105. Hagemann, M., Erdmann, N., and Wittenburg, E., 1989, Studies concerning enzyme activities in salt-loaded cells of the cyanobacterium Microcystis firma, Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 184: 87–94.Google Scholar
  106. Hagemann, M., Wölfel, L., and Krüger, B., 1990, Alterations of protein synthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 4803 after a salt shock,/ Gen. Microbiol. 136: 1393–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hardie, L. P., Balkwill, D. L., and Stevens, S. E., Jr., 1983a, Effects of iron starvation on the physiology of the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 999–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hardie, L. P., Balkwill, D. L., and Stevens, S. E., Jr., 1983b, Effects of iron starvation on the ultrastructure of the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 1007–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hawley, G. R. W., and Whitton, B. A., 1991a, Seasonal changes in chlorophyll-containing picoplankton populations of two lakes in northern England, Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 76: 545–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hawley, G. R. W., and Whitton, B. A., 1991b, Survey of algal picoplankton from lakes in five continents, Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 24: 1220–1222.Google Scholar
  111. Healey, F. P., 1973, Characteristics of phosphorus deficiency in Anabaena, J. Phycol. 9: 383–394.Google Scholar
  112. Healey, F. P., 1982, in: The Biology of Blue-Green Algae (N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 105–124.Google Scholar
  113. Herdman, M., 1987, Akinetes: Structure and function, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 227–250.Google Scholar
  114. Herdman, M., and Rippka, R., 1988, Hormogonia and baeocytes, Meth. Enzymol. 167: 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hickel, B., and Pollingher, U., 1988, Mass development of an iron precipitating cyanophyte (Cyanodictyon imperfectum) in a subtropical lake (Lake Kinneret, Israel), Phycologia 27: 291–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hirosawa, T., and Wolk, C. P., 1979, Isolation and characterization of a substance which stimulates the formation of akinetes in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum licheniforme Kütz., J. Gen. Microbiol. 114: 433–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hoffmann, L., 1988a, Criteria for the classification of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) at the genus and at the species level, Arch. Hydrobiol. 80: 131–139.Google Scholar
  118. Hoffmann, L., 1988b, The development of hormogonia, a possible taxonomic criterium in false branching blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria), Arch. Protistenk. 135: 41–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hoffman, L., 1988c, Algae of terrestrial habitats, Bot. Rev. 55: 77–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Howarth, R. W., Marino, R., Lane, J., and Cole, J. J., 1988a, Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 1. Rates and importance, Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 669–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Howarth, R. W., Marino, R., and Cole, J. J., 1988b, Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 2. Biogeochemical controls, Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 688–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Huang, T.-C., and Chow, T.J., 1990, Characterization of the rhythmic nitrogen-fixing activity of Synechococcus sp. RF-1 at the transcription level, Curr. Microbiol. 20: 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Huang, T.-C., Tu, J., Chow, T.J., and Chen, T.-H., 1990, Circadian rhythm of the prokaryote Synechococcus sp. RF-1, Plant Physiol. 92: 531–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Huntsman, S. A., and Sunda, W. G., 1980, The role of trace metals in regulating phytoplanton growth, in: The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton ( I. Morris, ed.), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 285–328.Google Scholar
  125. Hutber, G. N., Hutson, K. G., and Rogers, L. J., 1977, Effect of iron deficiency on levels of two ferredoxins and flavodoxins in a cyanobacterium, J. Bacteriol. 170: 258–265.Google Scholar
  126. Islam, R. I., and Whitton, B. A., in press, Cell composition and nitrogen-fixing activity of the deepwater rice-field cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Calothrix D764, Microbios.Google Scholar
  127. Jaag, 0., 1945, Untersuchungen über die Vegetation und Biologie der Algen des nackten Gesteins in den Alpen, im Jura und im schweizerischen Mittelland, Beitr. Kryptogamen flora Schweiz 9: 1–560.Google Scholar
  128. Janssen, I., Jakowitsch, J., Michalowski, C. B., Bohnert, H. J., and Löffelhardt, W., 1989, Evolutionary relationship of psbA genes from cyanobacteria, cyanelles and plastids, Curr. Genet. 15: 335–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Jeeji-Bai, N., 1977, Morphological variation of some species of Calothrix and Fortiea, Arch. Protistenk. 119: 367–387.Google Scholar
  130. Jensen, T. E., 1985, Cell inclusions in the cyanobacteria, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 71: 33–73.Google Scholar
  131. Jensen, T. E., and Clark, R. L., 1969, Cell wall and coat of the developing akinete of a Cylindrospermum species, J. Bacteriol. 97: 1494–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Jensen, T. E., Baxter, M., Rachlin, J. W., and Jani, V., 1982, Uptake of heavy metals by Plectonema boryanum (Cyanophyceae) into cellular compartments, especially polyphosphate bodies: An X-ray energy dispersive study, Environ. Pollut. A 27: 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Johnson, P. W., and Sieburth, J. Mc. N., 1979, Chroococcoid cyanobacteria in the sea: a ubiquitous and diverse phototrophic biomass, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24: 928–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Jones, K., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1969, Nitrogen turnover in marine and brackish habitats. III. The production of extracellular nitrogen by Calothrix scopulorum, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 49: 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jorgensen, B. B., and Nelson, D. C., 1988, Bacterial zonation, photosynthesis, and spectral light distribution in hot spring microbial mats of Iceland, Microb. Ecol. 16: 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jüttner, F., 1987, Volatile organic substances, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 453–469.Google Scholar
  137. Jüttner, F., Höflacher, B., and Wurster, K., 1986, Seasonal analysis of volatile organic bigenic substances (VOBS) in freshwater phytoplankton populations dominated by Dinobryon, Microcystis and Aphanizomenon, J. Phycol. 22: 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kann, E., 1972a, Zur Systematik und Ökologie der Gattung Chamaesiphon (Cyanophyceae) 1. Systematik, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 41: 117–171.Google Scholar
  139. Kann, E., 1972b, Zur Systematik und Ökologie der Gattung Chamaesiphon (Cyanophyceae) 2. Ökologie, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 41: 243–282.Google Scholar
  140. Kann, E., 1973, Bemerkungen zur Systematik und Ökologie einiger mit Kalk inkrustierter Phormidiumarten, Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 35: 141–151.Google Scholar
  141. Kann, E., and Komarek, J., 1970, Systematish-Okologishe Bererkungen zu den Arten des Formenkreis Phormidium autumnale, Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 32: 495–518.Google Scholar
  142. Kay, S. H., Quimbu, P. C., Jr., and Ourts, J. D., 1982, H202: A potential algicide for aquaculture, in: Proceedings 35th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 275–289.Google Scholar
  143. Kemp, H. T., Fuller, R. G., and Davidson, R. S., 1966, Potassium permanganate as an algicide, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 58: 255–263.Google Scholar
  144. Kerby, N. W, Rowell, P., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1989, The transport, assimilation and production of nitrogenous compounds by cyanobacteria and microalgae, in: Algal and Cyanobacterial Biotechnology (R. C. Cresswell, T. A. V., Rees, and N. Shah, eds.), Longman, Avon, England, pp. 50–90.Google Scholar
  145. Kerry, A., Laudenbach, D. E., and Trick, C. G., 1988, Influence of iron limitation and nitrogen source on growth and siderophore production by cyanobacteria, J. Phycol. 24: 566–571.Google Scholar
  146. Knoll, A. H., 1985, The distribution and evolution of microbial life in the late Proterozoic era, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 39: 391–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Komarek, J., 1983, Review (of F. Drouet, 1981, Revision of the Stigonemataceae with a Summary of the Classification of Blue-green Algae), Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 67: 113–114.Google Scholar
  148. Komarek, J., and Anagnostidis, K., 1988, Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes, Arch. Hydrobiol. 73: 157–226.Google Scholar
  149. Komarek, J., and Anagnostidis, K., 1989, Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes 4—Nostocales, Arch. Hydrobiol. 82: 247–345.Google Scholar
  150. Komarek, J., and Kann, E., 1973, Zur Taxonomie and Ökologie der Gattung Homoeothrix, Arch. Protistenk. 115: 173–233.Google Scholar
  151. Konig, A., 1985, Ecophysiological studies on some algae and bacteria of waste stabilization ponds, Ph. D. thesis, University of Liverpool, England.Google Scholar
  152. Kratz, W. A., and Myers, J., 1955, Nutrition and growth of several blue-green algae, Am. J. Bot. 42: 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Kylin, H., 1927, Uber die karotinoiden Farbstoffe der Algen, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 166: 39–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kylin, H., 1943, Zur Biochemie der Cyanophyceen, Kunglina Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund Förhandlinger 13: 64–77.Google Scholar
  155. Lamont, H. C., 1969, Sacrificial cell death and trichome breakage in an Oscillatoriacean blue-green alga—The role of murein, Arch. Mikrobiol. 69: 237–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Laudenbach, D. E., and Straus, N. A., 1988, Characterization of a cyanobacterial iron stress-induced gene similar to psbC, J. Bacteriol. 170: 5018–5026.Google Scholar
  157. Laudenbach, D. E., Reith, M. E., and Straus, N. A., 1988, Isolation, sequence analysis, and transcriptional studies of the flavodoxin gene from Anacystis nidulans R2, J. Bacteriol. 170: 258–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lawry, N. H., and Jensen, T. E., 1986, Condensed phosphate deposition, sulfur amino acid use, and unidirectional transsulfuration in Synechococcus leopoliensis, Arch. Microbiol. 144: 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Lazaroff, N., 1973, Photomorphogenesis and Nostocacean development, in: The Biology of Blue-Green Algae ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 279–319.Google Scholar
  160. Lean, D. R. S., and Nalewajko, C., 1976, Phosphate exchange and organic phosphorus excretion by freshwater algae, J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33: 1312–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Lee-Kaden, J., and Simonis, W., 1982, Amino acid uptake and energy coupling dependent on photosynthesis in Anacystis nidulans, J. Bacteriol. 151: 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Leon, C., Kumazawa, S., and Mitsui, A., 1986, Cyclic appearance of aerobic nitrogenase activity during synchronous growth of unicellular cyanobacteria, Curr. Microbiol. 13: 149–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Levine, E., and Thiel, T., 1987, UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., J. Bacteriol. 169: 3988–3993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Lewin, R. A., 1976, Naming the blue-greens, Nature 259: 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lewin, R. A., 1989, Order Prochlorales, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1799–1806.Google Scholar
  166. Linnaeus, C., 1753, Species Plantarum, Exhibentes Plantas Rite Cognitas, et Genera Relatas, cum Differentus Specificis, Nominibus Trivialibus, Synonymis Selectis, Locis Natalibus, Secundum Sys-tema Sexuale Digestas II,Stockholm, pp. 561–1200.Google Scholar
  167. Livingstone, D., Pentecost, A., and Whitton, B. A., 1984, Diel variations in nitrogen and carbon dioxide fixation by the blue-green alga Rivularia in an upland stream, Phycologia 23: 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Mackay, M. A., Norton, R. S., and Borowitzka, L. J., 1983, Marine blue-green algae have a unique osmoregulatory system, Mar. Biol. 73: 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mackey, E. J., and Smith, G. D., 1983, Adaptation of the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica to high oxygen tension, FEBS Lett. 156: 108–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Mahasneh, I. A., Grainger, S. L. J., and B. A. Whitton, 1990, Influence of salinity on hair formation and phosphatase activities of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Calothrix viguieri D253, Br. Phycol. J. 25: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mann, N., and Carr, N. G., 1974, Control of macromolecular composition and cell division in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, J. Gen. Microbiol. 83: 399–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Martin, T. C., and Wyatt, J. T., 1974, Extracellular investments in blue-green algae with particular emphasis on the genus Nostoc, J. Phycol. 10: 204–210.Google Scholar
  173. Marzolf, G. R., and Saunders, G. W., 1984, Patterns of diel oxygen changes in ponds of tropical India, Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 22: 1722–1726.Google Scholar
  174. Mathijs, H. C. P., Burger-Wiersma, T., and Mur, L. R., 1989, A status report on Prochlorothrix hollandica a free-living prochlorophyte, in: Prochloron A Microbial Enigma ( R. A. Lewin and L. Cheng, eds.), Chapman Hall, New York, pp. 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Matsumoto, A., and Tsuchiya, Y., 1988, Earth-musty odor-producing cyanophytes isolated from five water areas in Tokyo, Water Sci. Technol. 20: 179–183.Google Scholar
  176. May, V., 1989, Long-term observations on Anabaena circinaljs Rabenhorst (Cyanophyta), Hydro-biologia 179: 237–244.Google Scholar
  177. Mitsui, A., Kumazawa, S., Takahashi, A., Ikemoto, H., Cao, S., and Arai, T., 1986, Strategy by which nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria grow photoautotrophically, Nature 323: 720–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Mohammad, M. A., Reed, R. H., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1983, The halophilic cyanobacterium, Synechocystis DUN 52 and its osmotic responses, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 16: 287–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Monty, C. L. V., 1965, Recent algal stromatolites in the Windward Lagoon, Andros Island, Bahamas, Ann. Soc. Géol. Belg. Bull. 96: 585–624.Google Scholar
  180. Monty, C. L. V., 1979, Scientific reports of the Belgian expedition in the Australian Great Barrier Reefs, 1967. Sedimentology: 2. Monospecific stromatolites from the Great Barrier Reef Tract and their palaeontological significance, Ann. Soc. Géol. Belg. Bull. 101 (1978): 163–171.Google Scholar
  181. Moore, R. E., 1981, Toxins from marine blue-green algae, in: The Water Environment. Algae and Health ( W. W. Carmichael, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 15–23.Google Scholar
  182. Morden, C. W., and Golden, S. S., 1989, psnA genes indicate common ancestry of prochlorophytes and chloroplasts, Nature 337: 382–385.Google Scholar
  183. Naes, H., Utkilen, H. C., and Post, A. F., 1988, Factors influencing geocosmin production by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria brevis, Water Sci. 20: 125–131.Google Scholar
  184. Nair, V. R., Devassy, V. P., and Qasim, S. Z., 1980, Zooplankton Trichodesmium phenomenon, Indian J. Mar. Sci. 9: 1–6.Google Scholar
  185. Nalewajko, C., and Lean, D. R. S., 1978, Phosphorus kinetics—algal growth relationships in batch cultures, Mitt. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol. 21: 184–192.Google Scholar
  186. Natesan, R., and Shanmugasundaram, S., 1989, Extracellular phosphate solubilization by the cyanobacterium Anabaena ARM310, J. Biosci. 14: 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Nichols, J. M., and Adams, D. G., 1982, Akinetes, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 387–412.Google Scholar
  188. O’Brien, P. A., and Houghton, J. A., 1982, Photoreactivation and excision repair on UV induced pyrimidine dimers in the unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa alpicola (Synechocystis PCC 6803), Photochem. Photobiol. 36: 417–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ogawa, R. E., and Carr, J. E., 1969, The influence of nitrogen on heterocyst production in blue-green algae, Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Oliver, R. L., Thomas, R. H., Reynolds, C. S., and Walsby, A. E., 1985, The sedimentation of buoyant Microcystis colonies caused by precipitation with an iron-containing colloid, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 223: 511–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Paasche, E., 1960, On the relationship between primary production and standing stock of phytoplankton, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 26: 33–48.Google Scholar
  192. Padan, E., and Cohen, Y., 1982, Anoxygenic photosynthesis, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton B. A., eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 215–235.Google Scholar
  193. Paerl, H. W., 1988, Nuisance phytoplankton blooms in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters, Limnol. Oceanogr. 333: 823–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Paerl, H. W., 1990, Physiological ecology and regulation of N2 fixation in natural waters, Adv. Microb. Ecol. 11: 305–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Paerl, H. W., and Carlton, R. G., 1988, Control of N2 fixation by oxygen depletion in surface-associated microzones, Nature (London) 332: 260–262.Google Scholar
  196. Paerl, H. W., Bebout, B. M., and Prufert, L. E., 1989, Naturally occurring patterns of oxygenic photosynthesis and N2 fixation in a marine microbial mat: physiological and ecological ramifications, in: Microbial Mats ( Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.) pp. 326–241, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  197. Palmer, R. J., Jr., and Friedmann, E. I., 1990, Water relations and photosynthesis in the cryptoendolithic microbial habitat of hot and cold deserts, Microb. Ecol. 19: 111–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Pandey, K. D., and Kashyap, A. K., 1987, Factors affecting formation of spores (akinetes) in cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum (AdS strain), J. Plant Physiol. 127: 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Pandey, R. K., and Talpasayi, E. R. S., 1980, Control of sporulation in a blue-green alga Nodularia spumigena Mertens, Indian J. Bot. 3: 128–133.Google Scholar
  200. Pankow, H., 1986, Über endophytische und epiphytische Algen in bzw. auf der Gallerthulle von Microcystis-Kolonien, Arch. Protistenk. 132: 377–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Pardy, R. L., 1989, Prochloron in symbiosis, in: Prochloron A Microbial Enigma (R. A. Lewin and L. Cheng, eds.), Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 19–29.Google Scholar
  202. Pearson, H. W., Howsley, R., Kjeldson, C. K., and Walsby, A. E., 1979, Aerobic nitrogenase activity by axenic cultures of the blue-green alga Microcoleus chthonoplastes, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 5: 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Peat, A., Powell, N., and Potts, M., 1988, Ultrastructural analysis of the rehydration of desicaated Nostoc commune HUN (Cyanobacteria) with particular reference to the immunolabelling of NifH, Protoplasma 146: 72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Penny, D., 1989, What, if anything, is Prochloron? Nature 337: 304–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Pentecost, A., 1985, Investigation of variation in heterocyst numbers, sheath development and false-branching in natural populations of Scytonemataceae (Cyanobacteria), Arch. Hydrobiol. 102: 343–353.Google Scholar
  206. Peterson, R. B., and Wolk, C. P., 1978, High recovery of nitrogenase activity and of 55Felabeled nitrogenase in heterocysts isolated from Anabaena variabilis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 6271–6275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Pettersson, A., and Bergman, B., 1989, Effects of aluminum on ATP pools and utilization in the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica: A model for the in vivo toxicity, Physiol. Plant. 76: 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Pettersson, A., Hällbom, L., and Bergman, B., 1988, Aluminium effects on uptake and metabolism of phosphorus by the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica, Plant Physiol. 86: 112–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Pierce, J., and Omata, T., 1988, Uptake and utilization of inorganic carbon by cyanobacteria, Photosynth. Res. 16: 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Potts, M., and Friedmann, E. I., 1981, Effects of water stress on cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria from hot desert rocks, Arch. Microbiol. 130: 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Potts, M., and Whitton, B. A., 1977, Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algal communities in the intertidal zone of the lagoon of Aldabra Atoll, Oecologia (Berl.) 27: 275–283.Google Scholar
  212. Potts, M., Bowman, M. A., and Morrison, N. S., 1984, Control of matrix potential (arm) in immobilized cultures of cyanobacteria, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 24: 193–196.Google Scholar
  213. Procter, L. M., and Fuhrman, J. A., 1990, Viral mortality of marine bacteria and cyanobacteria, Nature 343: 60–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rambler, M., Margulis, L., and Barghoorn, E. S., 1977, Natural mechanisms of protection of a blue-green alga against ultra-violet light, in: Chemical Evolution of the Early Precambrian ( C. Ponnamperuma, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 133–141.Google Scholar
  215. Rana, B. C., Gopal, T., and Kumar, H. D., 1971, Studies on the biological effects of industrial wastes on the growth of algae, Environ. Health 13: 138–143.Google Scholar
  216. Reddy, K. J., Bullerjahn, G. S., Sherman, D. M., and Sherman, L. A., 1988, Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and mutagenesis of a gene (irpA) involved in iron-deficient growth of the cyanobacterium Synechococcvs sp. strain PCC7942, J. Bacteriol. 170: 4466–4476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Reddy, P. M., 1983, Changes in polyphosphate bodies during sporulation and spore germination in cyanobacteria, Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 178: 77–79.Google Scholar
  218. Reed, R. H., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1983, Physiological responses of Rivularia atra to salinity: Osmotic adjustment in hyposaline medium, New Phytol. Reed, 95: 595–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Reed, R. H., Richardson, D. L., Warr, S. R. C., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1984, Carbohydrateaccumulation and osmotic stress in cyanobacteria, J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 1–4.Google Scholar
  220. Reed, R. H., Richardson, D. L., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1985, Na+ uptake and extrusion in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6714 in response to hypersaline treatment. Evidence for transient changes in plasmalemma, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 814: 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Reed, R. H., Borowitzka, L. J., Kackay, M. A., Chudek, J. A., Foster, R., Warr, S. R. C., Moore, D. J., and Stewart, W., D. P., 1986a, Organic solute accumulation in osmotically stressed cyanobacteria, FENS Microbiol. Rev. 39: 51–56.Google Scholar
  222. Reed, R. H., Warr, S. R. C., Kerby, N. W., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1986b, Osmotic shock-induced release of low molecular weight metabolites from free-living and immobilized cyanobacteria, Enzyme Microb. Technol. 8: 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Revsbech, N. P., and Ward, D. M., 1984, Microelectrode studies of interstitial water chemistry and photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48: 270–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Reynolds, C. S., 1987, Cyanobacterial water-blooms, Adv. Bot. Res. 13: 68–143.Google Scholar
  225. Reynolds, C. S., Jaworski, G. H. M., Cmiech, H. A., and Leedale, F. F., 1981, On the annual cycle of the blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. emend Elenkin, Phil. Trans. R. Soc.Lond. B 293: 419–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Riethman, H. C., and Sherman, L. A., 1988, Immunological characterization of iron-regulated membrane proteins in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2, Plant Physiol. 88: 497–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Rippka, R., 1988, Recognition and identification of cyanobacteria, Meth. Enzymol. 167:28–67. Rippka, R., Deruelles, J. B., Waterbury, J. B., Herdman, M., and Stanier, R. Y., 1979, Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria, J. Gen. Microbiol. 111: 1–61.Google Scholar
  228. Robinson, B. L., and Miller, J. H., 1970, Photomorphogenesis in the blue-green alga Nostoc commune 584, Physiol. Plant. 23: 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Roger, P. A., and Kulasooriya, S. A., 1980, Blue-Green Algae and Rice, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  230. Roman, M. R., 1978, Ingestion of the blue-green alga Trichodesmium by the harpactacoid copepod, Macrosetella gracilis, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 1245–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Roncel, M., Navarro, J. A., and de la Rosa, M. A., 1989, Coupling of solar energy to hydrogen peroxide production in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans, Appl Environ. Microbiol. 55: 483–487.Google Scholar
  232. Rother, J. A., and Fay, P., 1979, Some physiological characteristics of planktonic blue-green algae during bloom formation in three Salopian meres, Freshwater Biol. 9: 369–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Rother, J. A., Aziz, A., Hye Karim, N., and Whitton, B. A., 1988, Ecology of deepwater ricefields in Bangladesh. 4. Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algal communities, Hydrobiologia 169: 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Roychoudhury, P., and Kaushik, B. D., 1989, Solubilization of Mussorie rock phosphate by cyanobacteria, Curr. Sci. 58: 569–570.Google Scholar
  235. Rueter, J. G., 1988, Iron stimulation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in Anabaena 7120 and Trichodesmium (Cyanophyceae), J. Phycol. 24: 249–254.Google Scholar
  236. Rueter, J. G., Ohki, K., and Fujita, Y., 1990, The effect of iron nutrition on photosynthesis and nitrogen-fixation of Trichodesmium (Cyanophyceae), J. Phycol. 26: 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sagan, C., 1965, in: The Origins of Prebiological Systems and of Their Molecular Matrices (S. W. Fox, ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  238. Saito, N., and Werbin, H., 1970, Purification of a blue-green algal deoxyribonucleic acid photoreactivation enzyme. An enzyme requiring light as a physical cofactor to perform its catalytic function, Biochemistry (N.Y.) 9: 2610–2620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Sarma, T. A., and Khattar, J. I. S., 1986, Accumulation of cyanophycin and glycogen during sporulation in the blue-green alga Anabaena torulosa, Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 181: 155–164.Google Scholar
  240. Scanlan, D. J., Mann, N. H., and Carr, N. G., 1989, Effect of iron and other nutrient limitations on the pattern of outer membrane proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942, Arch. Microbiol. 152: 224–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Schaefer, M. R., and Golden, S. S., 1989, Differential expression of members of a cyanobacterial psbA gene family in response to light, J. Bacteriol. 171: 3973–3981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Scherer, S., and Potts, M., 1989, Novel water stress protein from a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, J. Bacteriol. 264: 12546–12553.Google Scholar
  243. Scherer, S., Ernst, A., Chen, T.-W., and Böger, P., 1984, Rewetting of drought-resistant blue-green algae: Time course of water uptake and reappearance of respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation, Oecologia (Berl.) 62: 418–423.Google Scholar
  244. Scherer, S., Chen, T. W., and Böger, P., 1988, A new UV A/B protecting pigment in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, Plant Physiol. 88: 1055–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Schopf, J. W., and Walter, M. R., 1982, Origin and evolution of cyanobacteria: The geological evidence, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 543–564.Google Scholar
  246. Schwabe, G. H., and Mollenhauer, R., 1967, Über den Einfluss der Begleitbakterien auf das Lagerbild von Nostoc sphaericum, Nova Hedwigia 13: 77–80.Google Scholar
  247. Severina, I. I., Skulachev, V. P., and Fedorova, N. D., 1989, Specific features of the energetics and motility of cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH 8113, Biol. Membrany 6(4): 434–436 [in Russian, with English abstract].Google Scholar
  248. Sherman, D. A., and Sherman, L. A., 1983, The effects of iron deficiency and iron restoration on the ultrastructure of the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans, J. Bacteriol. 156: 393–401.Google Scholar
  249. Sherman, L., Bricker, T., Guikema, J., and Pakrasi, H., 1987, The protein composition of the photosynthetic complexes from the cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1–33.Google Scholar
  250. Sherr, E. B., and Sherr, B. F., 1987, High rates of consumption of bacteria by pelagic ciliates, Nature 325: 710–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shilo, M., 1989, The unique characteristics of benthic cyanobacteria, in: Microbial Mats ( Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 207–213.Google Scholar
  252. Sicko-Goad, L., and Jensen, T. E., 1976, Phosphate metabolism in blue-green algae. II. Changes in phosphate distribution during starvation and the `polyphosphate’ overplus phenomenon in Plectonema boryanum, Can. J. Microbiol. 24: 105–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Sicko-Goad, L., and Lazinsky, D., 1986, Quantitative ultrastructural changes associated with lead-coupled luxury phosphate uptake and polyphosphate utilization, Arch. Environ. Con-tam. Taxicol. 15: 617–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Simon, R. D., 1987, Inclusion bodies in the cyanobacteria: Cyanophycin, polyphosphate, polyhedral bodies, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 199–225.Google Scholar
  255. Simon, R. D., and Weathers, P., 1976, Determination of the structure of the novel polypeptide containing aspartic acid and arginine which is found in cyanobacteria, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 420: 165–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Simonis, W., Bornefeld, T., Lee-Kaden, J., and Majumdar, K., 1974, Phosphate uptake and photophosphorylation in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, in: Membrane Transport in Plants ( U. Zimmerman and J. Dainty, eds.) pp. 220–225, Springer, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Sinclair, C., and Whitton, B. A., 1977, Influence of nutrient deficiency on hair formation in the Rivulariaceae, Br. Phycol. J. 12: 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Singh, R. N., and Tiwari, D. N., 1970, Frequent heterocyst germination in the blue-green alga Gloeotrichia ghosei Singh, J. Phycol. 6: 172–176.Google Scholar
  259. Singh, S., and Rai, A. K., 1990, Nickel-dependent growth and urea uptake in the cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis nidulans, Indian J. Exp. Biol. 28: 80–82.Google Scholar
  260. Sirenko, L. A., Stetsenko, N. M., Arendarchuk, V. V., and Kuz’menko, M. I., 1968, Role of oxygen conditions in the vital activity of certain blue-green algae, Mikrobiol. Transi. 37 (2): 199–202.Google Scholar
  261. Srivastava, B. S., Kumar, H. D., and Singh, H. N., 1971, The effect of caffeine and light on killing of the blue-green alga Anabaena doliolum by ultraviolet radiation, Arch. Microbiol. 78: 139–144.Google Scholar
  262. Stacey, G. C., Van Baalen, C., and Tabita, F. R., 1977, Isolation and characterization of a marine Anabaena sp. capable of rapid growth on molecular nitrogen, Arch. Microbiol. 114: 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Stai, L. J., Grossberger, S., and Krumbein, W. E., 1984, Nitrogen fixation associated with the cyanobacterial mat of a marine laminated microbial ecosystem, Mar. Biol. 82: 217224.Google Scholar
  264. Stal, L. J., Heyer, H., Bekker, S., Villbrandt, M., and Krumbein, W. E., 1989, Aerobic—anaerobic metabolism in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa, in: Microbial Mats (Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 255–276.Google Scholar
  265. Staley, J. T., Bryant, M. P., Pfennig, N., and J. G. Holt (eds.), 1989, Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1710–1727.Google Scholar
  266. Stam, W. T., 1980, Relationships between a number of filamentous blue-green algal strains (Cyanophyceae) revealed by DNA—DNA hybridization, Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) 56: 35 1374.Google Scholar
  267. Stam, W. T., and Holleman, H. C., 1979, Cultures of Phormidium, Plectonema, Lyngbya and Synechococcus (Cyanophyceae) under different conditions: Their growth and morphological variability, Acta Bot. Neerl. 26: 327–342.Google Scholar
  268. Stam, W. T., and Venema, G., 1977, The use of DNA—DNA hybridization for determination of the relationship between some blue-green algae ( Cyanophyceae ), Acta Bot. Neerl. 26: 327–342.Google Scholar
  269. Stanier, R. Y., and Cohen-Bazire, G., 1977, Phototrophic prokaryotes: The cyanobacteria, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 31: 225–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Stanier, R. Y., Sistrom, W. R., Hansen, T. A., Whitton, B. A., Castenholz, R. W., Pfennig, N., Gorlenko, V. N., Kondratieva, E., M. N., Eimhjellen, K. E., Whittenbury, R., Gherna, R. L., and Trüper, H. G., 1978, Proposal to place the nomenclature of the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) under the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 335–336.Google Scholar
  271. Steinberg, C. E. W., and Hartmann, H. M., 1988, Planktonic bloom-forming cyanobacteria and the eutrophication of lakes and rivers, Freshwater Biol. 20: 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Stevens, S. R., Jr., Patterson, C. O. P., and Myers, J., 1973, The production of hydrogen peroxide by blue-green algae: a survey, J. Phycol. 9: 427–430.Google Scholar
  273. Stockner, J. G., 1988, Phototrophic picoplankton: An overview from marine and freshwater ecosystems, Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 765–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Stockner, J. G., and Antia, N. J., 1986, Algal picoplankton from marine and freshwater ecosystems: A multidisciplinary approach, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 2472–2503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Stockner, J. G., and Shortreed, K. S., 1988, Response of Anabaena and Synechococcus to manipulation of nitrogen—phosphorus ratios in a lake fertilization experiment, Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 1348–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Storch, T. A., and Dunham, V. L., 1986, Iron-mediated changes in the growth of Lake Erie phytoplankton and axenic algal cultures, J. Phycol. 22: 109–117.Google Scholar
  277. Sutherland, J. M., Herdman, M., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1979, Akinetes of the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7524: Macromolecular composition, structure and control of differentiation, J. Gen. Microbiol. 115: 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Thomas, J., 1972, Relationship between age of culture and occurrence of the pigments of photosystem II of photosynthesis in heterocysts of a blue-green alga,/ Bacteriol. 110: 92–95.Google Scholar
  279. Trick, C. G., and Kerry, A., 1989, Isolation and purification of siderophores produced by cyanobacteria, Anacystis nidulans R2, Anabaena variabilis, and Spirulina maxima, J. Phycol. (Suppl.) 25: (2): 11.Google Scholar
  280. Turner, S., Burger-Wiersma, T., Giovannoni, S. J., Mur, L. R., and Pace, N. R., 1989, The relationship of a prochlorophyte Prochlorothrix hollandica to green chloroplasts, Nature 337: 380–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Tyler, P. A., and Buckney, R. T., 1980, Ferromanganese concretions in Tasmanian lakes, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 31: 525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Van Baalen, C., 1968, The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on a coccoid blue-green alga: Survival, photosynthesis, and photoreactivation, Plant Physiol. 43: 1689–1695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Van Baalen, C., 1987, Nitrogen fixation, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 187–198.Google Scholar
  284. Van Baalen, C., and O’Donnell, R., 1972, Action spectra for ultraviolet killing and photoreactivation in the blue-green alga Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Photochem. Photobiol. 35: 359–364.Google Scholar
  285. Van de Water, S. D., and Simon, R. D., 1982, Induction and differentiation of heterocysts in the filamentous cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum licheniforme, J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 917–925.Google Scholar
  286. Van Liere, L., and Walsby, A. E., 1982, Interactions of cyanobacteria with light, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 9–45.Google Scholar
  287. Vincent, W. (ed.), 1987, Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 21:361–542.Google Scholar
  288. Walsby, A. E., 1972, Gas vacuoles, in: The Biology of Blue-Green Algae ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 340–352.Google Scholar
  289. Walsby, A. E., 1987, Mechanisms of buoyancy regulation by planktonic cyanobacteria with gas vesicles, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.) pp. 377–392, Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford.Google Scholar
  290. Ward, A. K., Dahm, C. N., and Cummins, K. W., 1985, Nostoc (Cyanophyta) productivity in Oregon stream ecosystems: Invertebrate influences and differences between different morphological types, J. Phycol. 21: 223–227.Google Scholar
  291. Ward, D. M., Weller, R. Shiea, J., Castenholz, R. W., and Cohen, Y., 1989, Hot spring microbial mats: Anoxygenic and oxygenic mats of possible evolutionary significance, in: Microbial Mats (Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  292. Warr, S. R. C., Reed, R. H., and Stewart, W. D. P., 1984, Physiological responses of Nodularia harveyana to osmotic stress, Mar. Biol. 79: 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Watanabe, M., Koyosawa, H., and Hayashi, H., 1985, Studies on planktonic blue-green algae 1. Anabaena macrospora Klebahn from Kizaki, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. B Tokyo 11: 69–76.Google Scholar
  294. Waterbury, J. B., 1989, Subsection II. Order Pleurocapsales Geitler 1925, emend. Waterbury and Stanier 1978, in: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 ( J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig, and J. G. Holt, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1747–1770.Google Scholar
  295. Waterbury, J. B., Watson, S. W. Guillard, R. R. L., and Brand, L. E., 1979, Widespread occurrence of a unicellular marine planktonic cyanobacterium, Nature 277: 293–294.Google Scholar
  296. Waterbury, J. B., Willey, J. M., Franks, D. G., Valois, F. W., and Watson, S. W., 1985, A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility, Science 230: 74–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Werbin, H., and Rupert, C. S., 1968, Presence of photoreactiving enzyme in blue-green algal cells, Photochem. Photobiol. 7: 225–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wheeler, P. A., 1983, Phytoplankton nitrogen metabolism, in: Nitrogen in the Marine Environment ( E. Carpenter, ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  299. Whitton, B. A., 1987a, The biology of Rivulariaceae, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 513–534.Google Scholar
  300. Whitton, B. A., 1987b, Survival and dormancy of blue-green algae, in: Survival and Dormancy of Microorganisms ( Y. Henis, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 109–167.Google Scholar
  301. Whitton, B. A., 1980, Zinc and plants in rivers and streams, in: Zinc in the Environment, Part II: Health Effects U. O. Nriagu, ed.), Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 415–437.Google Scholar
  302. Whitton, B. A., 1988, Hairs in eukaryotic algae, in: Algae and the Aquatic Environment ( F. E. Round, ed.), Biopress, Bristol, England, pp. 446–460.Google Scholar
  303. Whitton, B. A., and Potts, M., 1982, Marine littoral, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.) pp. 515–542, Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  304. Whitton, B. A., Rother, J. A., and Paul, A. R., 1988a, Ecology of deepwater rice-fields in Bangladesh 2. Chemistry of sites at Manikganj and Sonargaon, Hydrobiologia 169: 21–30.Google Scholar
  305. Whitton, B. A., Aziz, A., Kawecka, B., and Rother, J. A., 1988b, Ecology of deepwater ricefields in Bangladesh 3. Associated algae and macrophytes, Hydrobiologia 169: 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Whitton, B. A., Potts, M., Simon, J. W., and Grainger, S. L. J., 1990, Phosphatase activity of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Nostoc commune UTEX 584, Phycologia 29: 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Whitton, B. A., Grainger, S. L. J., Hawley, G. R. W., and Simon, J. W., 1991, Cell-bound and extracellular phosphatase activities of cyanobacterial isolates, Microb. Ecol. 21: 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Willey, J. M., and Waterbury, J. B., 1989, Chemotaxis toward nitrogenous compounds by swimming strains of marine Synechococcus spp., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 1888–1894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Woese, C. R., 1987, Bacterial evolution, Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Wolk, C. P., 1982, Heterocysts, in: The Biology of Cyanobacteria ( N. G. Carr and B. A. Whitton, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, and University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 359–386.Google Scholar
  311. Wu, J. H., Lewin, R. A., and Werbin, H., 1967, Photoreactivation of UV-iradiated blue-green algal virus LPP-1, Virology 31: 657–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Wyatt, J. T., and Silvey, J. K. G., 1969, Nitrogen fixation by Gloeocapsa, Science 165: 908–909.Google Scholar
  313. Wyman, M., and Fay, P., 1987, Acclimation to the natural light climate, in: The Cyanobacteria ( P. Fay and C. Van Baalen, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 347–376.Google Scholar
  314. Yopp, J. H., Miller, D. M., and Tindall, D. R., 1978, Regulation of introcellular water potential in the halophilic blue-green alga Aphanothece halophytica (Chroococcales), in: Energetics and Structure of Halophilic Microorganisms ( S. R. Caplan and M. Ginzburg, eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, New York, pp. 619–624.Google Scholar
  315. Zohary, T., 1985, Hyperscums of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in a hypertrophic lake (Harteespoort Dam, South Africa), J. Plankton Res. 7: 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Zohary, T., 1989, Cyanobacterial hyperscums of hypertrophic water bodies, in: Microbial Mats (Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg, eds.), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., pp. 52–63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian A. Whitton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of DurhamDurhamUK

Personalised recommendations