Advertisement

The Neuropharmacology of Ethanol Self-Administration

  • F. Weiss
  • G. F. Koob

Abstract

The abuse liability of ethanol is thought to derive primarily from its anxiolytic and euphoric effects. Together, these properties are believed to underlie the acute reinforcing actions of ethanol that, in turn, sustain continued abuse and thereby ultimately may lead to the development of dependence. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the rewarding and intoxicating effects of ethanol are mediated by its actions on one or more specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain (Faber and Klee, 1977; Kulonen, 1983; Liljequist and Engel, 1979; Myers, 1978b; Tabakoff, 1977). However, although there is tentative evidence linking certain transmitters—notably the catecholamines, opioids, gamma-amino butyric acid and serotonin—or their receptors to aspects of the intoxicating actions of ethanol, no exclusive role for any transmitter in ethanol reward or dependence has yet been established.

Keywords

Ethanol Consumption Ethanol Intake Alcohol Preference Total Fluid Intake Ethanol Preference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlenius S, Engel J (1971): Effects of small doses of haloperidol on timing behavior. J Pharm Pharmacol 32:301–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altshuler HL, Phillips PE, Feinhandler DA (1980): Alterations of ethanol selfadministration by naltrexone. Life Sci 26:679–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amit S, Sutherland EA, Bill K, Ogren SO (1984): Zimelidine: a review of its effects on ethanol consumption. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 8:35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amit Z, Brown ZW (1982): Actions of drugs of abuse on brain reward systems: a reconsideration with specific attention to alcohol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amit Z, Levitan DE, Brown ZW, Sutherland EA (1977): Catecholaminergic involvement in alcohol’s rewarding properties: Implications for a treatment model for alcoholics. In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology: Biological Aspects of Ethanol IIIa, vol. 85A. Gross MM, ed. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Amit Z, Stern MH (1971): A further investigation of alcohol preference in the laboratory rat induced by hypothalamic stimulation. Psychopharmacologia 21:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badawy AA-B, Evans M (1983): Opposite effects of chronic administration and subsequent withdrawal of drugs of dependence on the metabolism and disposition of endogenous and exogenous tryptophane in the rat. Alcohol 18:369–382Google Scholar
  8. Beaman CM, Hunter GA, Dunn LL, Reid LD (1984): Opioids, benzodiazepines and intake of ethanol. Alcohol 1:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blum K, Briggs AH, DeLallo L, Elston SFA, Ochoa R (1982): Whole brain methionine enkephalinase of ethanol avoiding and ethanol-preferring C57B1 mice. Experientia 38:1469–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blum K, Briggs AH, Elston SFA, Hirst M, Hamilton MG, Verebey KA (1980): A common denominator theory of alcohol and opiate dependence: review of similarities and differences. In: Alcohol Tolerance and Dependence, Crabbe J, Rigter R, eds. New York: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Bozarth MA (1982): Opiate reward mechanisms mapped by intracranial selfadministration. In: Neurobiology of Opiate Reward, Smith JE, Lane JD, eds. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown DR, Holtzman SG (1979): Suppression of deprivation-induced food and water intake in rats and mice by naloxone. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 11:567–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown ZW, Amit Z (1977): The effects of selective catecholamine depletions by 6-hydroxydopamine on ethanol preference in rats. Neurosci Lett 5:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown ZW, Gill K, Abitbol M, Amit Z (1982): Lack of effects of dopamine receptor blockade on voluntary ethanol consumption in rats. Behav Neural Biol 36(3):291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bustos G, Roth RH (1976): Effect of acute ethanol treatment on transmitter synthesis and metabolism in central dopaminergic neurons. J Pharm Pharmacol 28:580–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carmichael FJ, Israel Y (1975): Effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release by rat cortical slices. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 193:824–834Google Scholar
  17. Charness ME, Gordon AD, Diamond I (1984): Ethanol modulation of opiate receptors in cultured neuronal cells. Science 222:1246–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cicero TJ (1979): A critique of animal analogues of alcoholism. In: Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Ethanol, vol. 2. Majchrowicz E, Noble EP, eds. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Collins MA (1988): Acetaldehyde and its condensation products as markers in alcoholism. In: Recent Developments in Alcoholism, vol. 6, Galanter M, ed. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Collins MA, Cheng BY (1988): Oxidative decarboxylation of salsinol-1-carbo xylic acid to 1,2-dehydrosalsinol: evidence for exclusive catalysis by particulate fractions in rat kidney. Arch Biochem Biophys 263:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collins MA, Kahn AJ (1982): Attraction to ethanol solutions in mice: induction by a tetrahydroisoquinoline of L-DOPA. Subs Alc Actions Misuse 3:299–302Google Scholar
  22. Cooper SJ (1980): Naloxone: effects on food and water consumption in the non-deprived and deprived rat. Psychopharmacology 71(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Critcher EC, Lin CI, Patel J, Myers RD (1982): Attenuation of alcohol drinking in tetrahydroisoquinoline-treated rats by morphine and naltrexone. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daoust M, Chretien P, Moore N, Saligaut C, Lhuintre JP, Boismare F (1985): Isolation and striatal (3H) serotonin uptake: role in the voluntary intake of ethanol by rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 22:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dar MS, Wooles WR (1984): The effect of acute ethanol on dopamine metabolism in the striatum of mice. J Neural Transm 60:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis VE, Walsh MJ (1970): Alcohol, amines, and alkaloids: a possible biochemical basis for alcohol addiction. Science 167:1005–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeWit H, Wise RA (1977): Blockade of cocaine reinforcement in rats with the dopamine receptor blocker pimozide, but not with the noradrenergic blockers phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine. Can J Psychol 31:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DiChiara G, Corsini GU, Mereu GP, Tissari A, Gessa GL (1979): Self-inhibitory dopamine receptors: their role in the biochemical and behavioral effects of low doses of apomorphine. In: Advances in Biochemical Pharmacology. Roberts PJ, Woodruff GN, Iversen LL, eds. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  29. DiChiara G, Imperato A (1988): Preferential stimulation of dopamine release in mesolimbic systems: a common feature of drugs of abuse. In: Neurotransmitter Interactions in the Basal Ganglia. Sandler M, Feuerstein C, Scatton B, eds. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  30. Dole VP (1986): On the relevance of animal models to alcoholism in humans. Clin Exp Res 10:361–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duncan C, Dietrich RA (1980): A critical evaluation of tetrahydroisoquinolinesinduced ethanol preference in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eriksson K (1969): Factors affecting voluntary alcohol consumption in the albino rat. Ann Zool Fenn 6:227–265Google Scholar
  33. Ettenberg A, Koob GF, Bloom FE (1981): Response artifact in the measurement of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. Science 213:357–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ettenberg A, Pettit HO, Bloom FE, Koob GF (1982): Heroin and cocaine intravenous self-administration in rats: mediation by separate neural systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13:729–731Google Scholar
  35. Faber DS, Klee MR (1977): Actions of ethanol on neuronal membrane properties and synaptic transmission. In: Alcohol and Opiates, Blum K, ed. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Fadda F, Mosca E, Colombo G, Gessa GL (1989): Effects of spontaneous ingestion of ethanol on brain dopamine metabolism. Life Sci 44:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Falk JL (1961): Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science 133:195–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Falk JL, Samson HH, Tang M (1973): Chronic ingestion techniques for the production of physical dependence on ethanol. In: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal. Gross MM, ed. New York: Plenus PressGoogle Scholar
  39. Falk JL, Samson HH, Winger G (1972): Behavioral maintenance of high concentrations of blood ethanol and physical dependence in the rat. Science 177:811–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferko AP, Bobyock E (1979): Rates of ethanol disappearance from blood and hypothermia following acute and prolonged ethanol inhalation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50:417–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fertel RH, Greenwald JE, Schwarz R, Wong L, Binanchine J (1980): Opiate receptor binding and analgesic effects of the tetrahydroisoquinolines salsinol and tetrahydropapaveroline. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 27:3–16Google Scholar
  42. Fibiger HC (1978): Drugs and reinforcement mechanisms: a critical review of the catecholamine theory. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 18:37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frenk H, Rogers GH (1979): The suppressant effects of naloxone on food and water intake in the rat. Behav Neural Biol 26:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frey H-H, Magnussen MP, Kaergaard H, Nielsen C (1970): The effect of ppchloroamphetamine on the consumption of ethanol by rats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 183:165–172Google Scholar
  45. Froehlich JC, Harts J, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1987): Naloxone attenuation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Alcohol Suppl 1:333–337Google Scholar
  46. Geller I (1973): Effects of para-chlorophenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophane on alcohol intake in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Genazzani AR, Nappi G, Facchinetti F, Mazella GL, Parrin D, Sinforiani E, Petraglia F, Savoldi F (1982): Central deficiency of β-endorphin in alcohol addicts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:583–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gianoulakis C (1989): The effect of ethanol on the biosynthesis and regulation of opioid peptides. Experientia 45:428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gill K, Amit Z (1987): Effects of serotonin uptake blockade on food, water and ethanol consumption in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11:444–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goeders NE, Smith JE (1983): Cortical dopaminergic involvement in cocaine reinforcement. Science 221:773–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gongwer MA, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK (1989): Regional brain contents of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in the selectively bred high- and low-alcohol drinking lines of rats. Alcohol 6:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gothoni P, Ahtee L (1980): Chronic ethanol administration decreases 5-HT and increases 5-HIAA concentration in rat brain. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 46:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grant KA, Samson HH (1985): Induction and maintenance of ethanol self-administration without food deprivation in the rat. Psychopharmacology 86: 475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grupp LA, Perlanski E, Steward RB (1989): Angiotensin II-induced suppression of alcohol intake and its reversal by the angiotensin antagonist Sar-1 Thr-8 Angiotensin II. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 31:813–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ho AKS, Tsai CS, Chen RCA, Begleiter H, Kissin B (1974): Experimental studies on alcoholism I. Increase in alcohol preference by 5.6-dihydroxytryptamine and brain acetylcholine. Psychopharmacologia 40:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Holman RB, Snape BM (1985a): Effects of ethanol on 5-hydroxytryptamine release from rat corpus striatum in vivo. Alcohol 2:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holman RB, Snape BM (1985b): Effects of ethanol in vitro and in vivo on the release of endogenous catecholamines from specific regions of the rat brain. J Neurochem 44:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Holtzman SG (1979): Suppression of appetitive behavior in the rat by naloxone: lack of effect of prior morphine dependence. Life Sci 24:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hubner CB, Koob GF (1990): Bromocriptine produces decreases in cocaine self-administration in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 3:101–108Google Scholar
  60. Hunt WA, Majchrowicz E (1974): Rates and steady-state levels of brain serotonin in alcohol-dependent rats. Brain Res 72:181–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hunt WA, Majchrowicz E (1983): Studies of neurotransmitter interactions after acute and chronic ethanol administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18:371–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hynes MA, Gallagher M, Yacos KV (1981): Systemic and intraventricular naloxone administration: effects on food and water intake. Behav Neural Biol 32:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Imperato A, DiChiara G (1986): Preferential stimulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats by ethanol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 239:219–239Google Scholar
  64. Kalant H (1983): Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence: some questions, answers, and clinical implications. In: Etiologic Aspects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Gottheil E, Druley KA, Skoloda TE, Waxman HM, eds. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. ThomasGoogle Scholar
  65. Kelly PH, Seviour PW, Iversen SD (1975): Amphetamine and apomorphine responses in the rat following 6-OHDA of the nucleus accumbens septi and corpus striatum. Brain Res 94:507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Khanna JM, Kalant H, Le AD, Mayer J, LeBlanc AE (1979): Effect of modification of brain serotonin (5-HT) on ethanol tolerance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 3:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khanna JM, Le AD, Kalant H, LeBlanc AE (1980): Role of serotonin (5-HT) in tolerance to ethanol and barbiturates. In: Biological Effects of Alcohol. Begleiter H, ed. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  68. Khatib SA, Murphy JM, McBride WJ (1988): Biochemical evidence for activation of specific monoamine pathways by ethanol. Alcohol 5:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kiianmaa K, Fuxe K, Jonson G, Ahtee L (1975): Evidence for involvement of central NA neurons in alcohol intake. Increased alcohol consumption after degeneration of the NA pathway in the cortex cerebri. Neurosci Lett 1:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kiianmaa K (1976): Alcohol intake in the rat after lowering brain 5-hydroxytryptamine content by electrolytic midbrain raphe lesions, 5,6-hydroxytryptamine or p-chlorophenylalanine. Med Biol 54:203–209Google Scholar
  71. Kiianmaa K, Andersson K, Fuxe K (1979): On the role of ascending dopamine systems in the control of voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol intoxication. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 10:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Koob GF, Goeders N (1988): Neuroanatomical substrates of drug self-administration. In: Neuropharmacological Basis of Reward. Liebman JM, Cooper SJ, eds. Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  73. Koob GF, Vaccarino FJ, Amalric M, Swerdlow NR (1987): Neural substrates for cocaine and opiate reinforcement. In: Cocaine: Clinical and Biobehavioral Aspects. Fischer S, Raskin A, Uhlenhuth EH, eds. New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  74. Korpi ER, Sinclair JD, Malminen O (1987): Dopamine D2 receptor binding in striatal membranes of rats selected for differences in alcohol-related behaviors. Pharmacol Toxicol 61:94–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kulonen E (1983): Ethanol and GABA. Med Biol 61:147–167Google Scholar
  76. Lawrin MO, Naranjo CA, Sellers EM (1986): Identification of new drugs for modulating alcohol consumption. Psychopharmacol Bull 22:1020–1025Google Scholar
  77. Le AD, Khanna JM, LeBlanc AE (1981): Effect of modification of brain serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) on ethanol tolerance. Psychopharmacology 75:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lester D, Freed EX (1973): Criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Li T-K, Lumeng L, McBride WJ, Waller MB, Murphy JM (1986): Studies on animal model of alcoholism. In: National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph, Genetic and Biological Markers in Drug Abuse and Alcoholism. Braude E, Chao HM, eds. Rockville: NIDAGoogle Scholar
  80. Liljeqvist S (1978): Changes in the sensitivity of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens and in the striatum induced by chronic ethanol administration. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 43:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Liljequist S, Engel J (1979): The effect of chronic ethanol administration on central neurotransmitter mechanisms. Med Biol 57:199–210Google Scholar
  82. Linseman MA (1986): Alcohol consumption in free-feeding rats—procedural and genetic factors. Soc Neurosci Abstr 12:279–279Google Scholar
  83. Linseman MA (1987): Alcohol consumption in free-feeding rats: procedural, genetic and pharmacokinetic factors. Psychopharmacology 92:254–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lucchi L, Lupini M, Govoni S, Covelli V, Spano PF, Trabucchi M (1983): Ethanol and dopaminergic systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18(Suppl 1):379–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lumeng L, Li T-K(1986): The development of metabolic tolerance in the alcoholpreferring P-rats: comparison of forced and free-choice drinking of ethanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:1013–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lumeng L, Waller MB, McBride WJ, Li T-K (1982): Different sensitivities to ethanol in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lyness WH, Friedle NM, Moore KE (1979): Destruction of dopaminergic nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens: Effect on d-amphetamine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 11:556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lyon M, Robbins TW (1975): The action of central nervous system stimulant drugs: a general theory concerning amphetamine effects. In: Current Developments in Psychopharmacology, vol. 2. Essman W, Valzelli L, eds. New York: Spectrum PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  89. Marfaing-Jallat P, Miceli D, LeMagnen J (1983): Decrease in ethanol consumption by naloxone in naive and dependent rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18:5355–5395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McBride WJ, Murphy JM, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1988): Effects of Ro-15–4513, fluoxetine and desipramine on the intake of ethanol, water and food by the alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) lines of rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 30:1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meisch RA (1977): Ethanol self-administration: infrahuman studies. In: Advances in Behavioral Pharmacology, vol. 1. Thompson T, Dews PB, eds. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  92. Meisch RA (1982): Animal studies of alcohol intake. J Psychiatr Res 141:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Meisch RA (1984): Alcohol self-administration in experimental animals. In: Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems. Smart RG, Glaser FB, Israel Y, Cappel H, Kalant H, Schmidt W, Sellers EM, eds. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  94. Meisch RA, Henningfield JE (1977): Drinking of ethanol by rhesus monkeys: experimental strategies for establishing ethanol as a reinforcer. Adv Exp Med Biol 85:443–463Google Scholar
  95. Meisch RA, Thompson T (1971): Ethanol intake in the absence of concurrent food reinforcement. Psychopharmacologia 22:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mello NK (1973): A review of methods to induce alcohol addiction in animals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mello NK (1976): Animal models for the study of alcohol addiction. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1:347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Morinan A (1987): Reduction in striatal 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover following chronic administration of ethanol to rats. Alcohol 22:56–60Google Scholar
  99. Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1982): Regional brain levels of monoamines in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring lines of rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1987): Contents of monoamines in forebrain regions of alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) lines of rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 26:389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Murphy JM, Waller MB, Gatto GJ, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1988): Effects of fluoxetine on the intragastric self-administration of ethanol in the alcohol-preferring P line of rats. Alcohol 5:283–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Myers RD (1978a): Psychopharmacology of alcohol: a review. Pharmacol Toxicol 18:125–144Google Scholar
  103. Myers RD (1978b): Tetrahydroisoquinolines in the brain: the basis of an animal model of alcoholism. Clin Exp Res 2:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Myers RD (1989): Isoquinolines, beta-carbolines and alcohol drinking: involvement of opioid and dopaminergic mechanisms. Experientia 45:436–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Myers RD, Critcher EC (1982): Naloxone alters alcohol drinking induced in the rat by tetrahydropapaveroline (THP) infused ICV. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Myers RD, Martin GE (1973): The role of cerebral serotonin in the ethanol preference of animals. Ann NY Acad Sci 215:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Myers RD, Melchior CL (1975): Alcohol drinking in the rat after destruction of serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons in the brain. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 10:363–378Google Scholar
  108. Myers RD, Privette TH (1989): A neuroanatomical substrate for alcohol drinking: identification of tetrahydropapaveroline (THP)-reactive sites in rat brain. Brain Res Bull 22:899–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Myers RD, Veale WL (1968): Alcohol preference in the rats: reduction following depletion of brain serotonin. Science 160:1469–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Naber D, Soble MG, Pickar D (1981): Ethanol increases opioid activity in plasma of normal volunteers. Pharmacopsychiatry 14:160–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nachman M, Lester D, LeMagnen J (1970): Alcohol aversion in the rat: behavioural assessment of noxious drug effects. Science 168:1244–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Opitz K (1969): Beobachtungen bei Alkohol trinkenden Ratten-Einfluss von Fenfluramin. Pharmacopsykiat Neurospychopharmakol 2:202–205Google Scholar
  113. Ostrowski NL, Foley TL, Lind MD, Reid LD (1980): Naloxone reduces fluid intake: effects of food and water deprivation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 12:431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Parker LF, Radow BL (1976): Effects of parachlorophenylalanine on ethanol self-selection in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 4:535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Patel VA, Pohorecky LA (1989): Acute and chronic ethanol treatment on beta-endorphin and catecholamine levels. Alcohol 6:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pekkanen L, Rusi M (1979): The effects of niacin and riboflavin on voluntary ethanol intake and metabolism in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 11:575–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pfeffer A, Seizinger BR, Herz A (1981): Chronic ethanol inhibition interferes with delta-, but not with mu-opiate receptors. Neuropharmacology 20:1229–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pfeffer AO, Samson HH (1985): Oral ethanol reinforcement in the rat: effects of acute amphetamine. Alcohol 2:693–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pfeffer AO, Samson HH (1985): Oral ethanol reinforcements: interactive effects of amphetamine, pimozide and food restriction. Alcohol Drug Res 6:37–48Google Scholar
  120. Pfeffer AO, Samson HH (1986): Effect of pimozide on home cage ethanol drinking in the rat: dependence on drinking session length. Drug Alcohol Depend 17:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pfeffer AO, Samson HH (1988): Haloperidol and apomorphine effects on ethanol reinforcement in free-feeding rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29:343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pohorecky LA, Newman B, Sun J, Baile WH (1978): Acute and chronic ethanol ingestion and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 224:424–432Google Scholar
  123. Pulvirenti L, Kastin AJ (1988): Naloxone, but not Tyr-NiIF-1, reduces volitional ethanol drinking in rats: correlation with degree of spontaneous preferences. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 31:129–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rassnick S, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF (1989): Effects of a novel dopamine agonist, Sandoz 205–152, on ethanol self-administration. Soc Neurosci Abstr 15:251Google Scholar
  125. Reid LD, Hunter GA (1984): Morphine and naloxone modulate intake of ethanol. Alcohol 1:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Richter CP, Campbell KH (1940): Alcohol taste thresholds and concentrations of solution preferred by rats. Science 91:507–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Robbins TW, Roberts TCS, Koob GF (1983): The effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine upon operant behavior and schedule-induced licking in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 224:662–673Google Scholar
  128. Roberts DCS, Koob GF, Klonoff P, Fibiger HC (1980): Extinction and recovery of cocaine self-administration following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 12:781–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Roberts SCS, Koob GF (1982): Disruption of cocaine self-administration following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the ventral tegmental area in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17:901–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rockman GE, Amit Z, Brown W, Bourque C, Ogren SO (1982): An investigation of the mechanisms of action of 5-hydroxytyptamine in the suppression of ethanol intake. Neuropharmacology 21:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rockman GE, Amit Z, Carr G, Brown ZW, Ogren SO (1979): Attenuation of ethanol by 5-hydroxytryptamine blockade in laboratory rats. I. Involvement of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine in the mediation of positive reinforcing properties of ethanol. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 241:245–259Google Scholar
  132. Roehrs TA, Samson HH (1982): Relative responding on concurrent schedules: indexing ethanol’s reinforcing efficacy. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:393–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Samson HH (1986): Initiation of ethanol reinforcement using a sucrose-substitution procedure in food- and water-sated rats. Alcohol Clin Exper Res 10:436–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Samson HH (1987): Initiation of ethanol-maintained behavior: a comparison of animal models and their implication to human drinking. In: Neurobehavioral Pharmacology, vol. 6: Advances in Behavioral Pharmacology. Thompson T, Dews P, Barret J, eds. New Jersey: Erlbaum AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  135. Samson HH, Doyle TF (1985): Oral ethanol self-administration in the rat: effects of naloxone. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 22:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sandi C, Borell J, Guzaz C (1988): Naloxone decreases ethanol consumption within a free choice paradigm in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sandler M, Carter SB, Hunter KR, Stem GM (1973): Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids: in vivo metabolites of L-dopa in man. Nature 241:439–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sandler M, Glover V, Armando I, Clow A (1982): Pictet-Spengler condensation products, stress and alcoholism: some clinical overtones. Prog Clin Biol Res 90:215–226Google Scholar
  139. Sanger DL, McCarthy PS (1982): A comparison of the effects of opiate antagonists on operant and ingestive behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:1013–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schaefer GJ (1988): Opiate antagonists and rewarding brain stimulation. Neurosci Bio behav Rev 12:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schaefer GJ, Michael RP (1984): Drug interactions on spontaneous locomotor activity in rats: neuroleptics and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Neuropharmacology 23:909–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schultz R, Wuster M, Duka T, Herz A (1980): Acute and chronic ethanol treatment changes endorphin levels in brain and pituitary. Psychopharmacology 68:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Seizinger BR, Bovermann K, Moysinger D, Hollt V, Herz A (1983): Differential effect of acute and chronic ethanol treatment on particular opioid peptide systems in discrete regions of the rat brain and pituitary. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Signs SA, Yamamoto BK, Schechter MD (1987): In vivo electrochemical determination of extracellular dopamine in the caudate of freely moving rats after a low dose of ethanol. Neuropharmacology 26:1653–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sinclair JD, Senter RJ (1967): Increased preference for ethanol in rats following alcohol deprivation. Psychon Sci 8:11–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stapleton JM, Ostrowski NL, Merriman VJ, Lind MD, Reid LD (1979): Naloxone reduces fluid consumption in deprived and nondeprived rats. Bull Psychon Soc 13:237–239Google Scholar
  147. Stein JM, Wayner MJ, Tilson HA (1977): The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the intake of ethanol and saccharin solutions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 6:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Steward RB, Grupp LA (1984): A simplified procedure for producing ethanol self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 21:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stewart RB, Perlanski E, Grupp LA (1988): Ethanol as a reinforcer for rats: factors of facilitation and constraint. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 12:599 – 608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tabakoff B (1977): Neurochemical aspects of ethanol dependence. In: Alcohol and Opiates. Blum K, ed. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  151. Tabakoff B, Boggan WO (1974): Effects of ethanol on serotonin metabolism in brain. J Neurochem 22:759–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tabakoff B, Hoffman PL (1983): Alcohol interaction with brain opiate receptors. Life Sci 32:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tabakoff B, Ritzmann RF, Boggan WO (1975): Inhibition of the transport of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid from brain by ethanol. J Neurochem 24:1043–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ushijima I, Mizuki Y, Yamada M (1988): The mode of action of bromocriptine following pretreatment with reserpine and a-methyl-p-tyrosine in rats. Psychopharmacology 95:29–33Google Scholar
  155. Van de Kar LD, Wilkinson CW, Ganong WF (1981): Pharmacological evidence for a role of brain serotonin in the maintenance of plasma renin activity in unanaesthetized rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 219:85–90Google Scholar
  156. Veale WL (1973): Ethanol selection in the rat following forced acclimation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Veale WL, Myers RD (1970): Decrease in ethanol intake in rats following administration of p-chlorophenylalanine. Neuropharmacology 9:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Volpicelli R, Davis MA, Olgin JE (1986): Naltrexone blocks the post-shock increase of ethanol consumption. Life Sci 38:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Waller MB, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li T-K (1986): Effect of low-dose ethanol on spontaneous motor activity in alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 24:617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wallgren H, Barry HIII (1970): Actions of Alcohol. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing CorporationGoogle Scholar
  161. Wayner MJ, Greenberg I (1972): Effects of hypothalamic stimulation, acclimation and periodic withdrawal on ethanol consumption. Physiol Behav 9:737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wayner MJ, Greenberg I, Tartaglione R, Nolley D, Fraley S, Cott A (1972): A new factor affecting the consumption of ethyl alcohol and other sapid fluids. Physiol Behav 8:345–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Weiss F, Mitchiner M, Bloom FE, Koob GF (1990): Free-choice responding for ethanol versus water in alcohol-preferring (P) and unselected Wistar rats is differentially altered by naloxone, bromocriptine and methysergide. Psychopharmacology 101:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wise RA (1973): Voluntary ethanol intake in rats following exposure to ethanol on various schedules. Psychopharmacology 29:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wise RA (1978): Catecholamine theories of reward: a critical review. Brain Res 152:162–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wise RA (1980): Action of drugs of abuse on brain reward systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13(Suppl 1):213–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wise RA (1982): Neuroleptics and operant behavior: the anhedonia hypothesis. Behav Brain Sci 5:39–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wise RA (1984): Neural mechanisms of the reinforcing actions of cocaine. In: NIDA Research Monograph Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects, and Treatment of Abuse. Grabowski, ed. Rockville: NIDAGoogle Scholar
  169. Wise RA, Bozarth MA (1982): Action of drugs of abuse on brain reward systems: an update with specific attention to opiates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yokel RA, Wise RA (1975): Increased lever pressing for amphetamine after pimozide in rats: Implications for a dopamine theory of reward. Science 187:547–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yokel RA, Wise RA (1976): Attenuation of intravenous amphetamine reinforcement by central dopamine blockade in rats. Psychopharmacology 48:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. York JL (1978): A comparison of the discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol, barbital, and phenobarbital in rats. Psychopharmacology 60:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yoshimoto K, Komura S (1987): Re-examination of the relationship between alcohol preference and brain monoamines in inbred strains of mice including senescence-accelerated mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 27:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Yoshimoto K, Komura S, Mizohata K (1985): Alcohol preference and brain monoamines in five inbred strains of mice. IRCS Med Sci 13:1192–1193Google Scholar
  175. Zabik JE, Blinkerd K, Roache JD (1985): Serotonin and ethanol aversion in the rat. In: Research Advances in New Psychopharmacological Treatments of Alcoholism. Naranjo CA, Sellers EM, eds. New York: Excerpta MedicaGoogle Scholar
  176. Zimmerman H, Ganong WF (1980): Pharmacological evidence that stimulation of central serotonergic pathways increases renin secretion. Neuroendocrinology 30:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Weiss
  • G. F. Koob

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations