Single Cells and Rapid Inward Sodium Current

  • Trevor Powell
Part of the Advances in Myocardiology book series (ADMY)


This chapter presents a brief review of measurements of rapid inward sodium current in single cardiac cells. It is shown that the simplified morphology of the individual cell, with a lack of restricted extracellular space, has been exploited to provide improved spatial and temporal voltage control, resulting in the first recordings of both the activation and inactivation phases of rapid inward sodium current. It is to be expected that future research will produce much interesting data on this component of membrane current, which will have direct relevance to many processes concerned with cardiac function at the cellular level.


Sodium Current Heart Cell Peak Current Density Heart Muscle Cell Fast Sodium Current 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Draper, M. H., and Weidmann, S. 1951. Cardiac resting and action potentials recorded with an intracellular electrode. J. Physiol. 115:74–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Noble, D. 1979. The Initiation of the Heartbeat. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, E. A., and Lieberman, M. 1971. Heart: Excitation and contraction. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 33:479–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beeler, G. W., and Mc Guigan, J. A. S. 1978. Voltage clamping of multicellular myocardial preparations: Capabilities and limitations of existing methods. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 34:219–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Attwell, D., Eisner, D., and Cohen, I. 1979. Voltage clamp and tracer flux data: Effects of a restricted extracellular space. Q. Rev. Biophys. 12:213–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reuter, H. 1979. Properties of two inward membrane currents in the heart. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 41:413–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colatsky, T. J., and Tsien, R. W. 1979. Sodium channels in rabbit cardiac Purkinje fibres. Nature (London) 278:265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colatsky, T. J. 1980. Voltage clamp measurements of sodium channel properties in rabbit cardiac Purkinje fibres. J. Physiol. 305:215–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ebihara, L., Shigeto, N., Lieberman, M., and Johnson, E. A. 1980. The initial inward current in spherical clusters of chick embryonic heart cells. J. Gen. Physiol. 75:437–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ebihara, L., and Johnson, E. A. 1980. Fast sodium current in cardiac muscle: A quantitative description. Biophys. J. 32:779–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ebihara, L., Shigeto, N., Lieberman, M., and Johnson, E. A. 1983. A note on the reactivation of the fast sodium current in spherical clusters of embryonic chick heart cells. Biophys. J. 42:191–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mathias, R. T., Ebihara, L., Lieberman, M., and Johnson, E. A. 1980. Linear electrical properties of heart cell aggregates. Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 39:2077A.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee, K. S., Weeks, T. A., Kao, R. L., Akaike, N., and Brown, A. M. 1979. Sodium current in single heart muscle cells. Nature (London) 278:269–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Undrovinas, A. I., Yushmanova, A. V., Hering, S., and Rosenshtraukh, L. V. 1979. Use of the voltage clamp method in single mammalian cardiac cells for ionic current measurement. Physiol. J. U.S.S.R. 66:602–606.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Undrovinas, A. I., Yushmanova, Q. V., Hering, S., and Rosenshtraukh, L. V. 1980. Voltage clamp method on single cardiac cells from adult rat heart. Experientia 36:572–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bodewei, R., Hering, S., Lemke, B., Rosenshtraukh, L. V., Undrovinas, A. I., and Wollenberger, A. 1982. Characterization of the fast sodium current in isolated rat myocardial cells: Simulation of the clamped membrane potential. J. Physiol. 325:301–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown, A. M., Lee, K. S., and Powell, T. 1980. Reactivation of the sodium conductance in single heart muscle cells. J. Physiol. 301:78–79P.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown, A. M., Lee, K. S., and Powell, T. 1981. Voltage clamp and internal perfusion of single rat heart muscle cells. J. Physiol. 318:455–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown, A. M., Lee, K. S., and Powell, T. 1981. Sodium current in single rat heart muscle cells. J. Physiol. 318:479–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hume, J. R., and Giles, W. 1983. Ionic currents in single isolated bullfrog atrial cells. J. Gen. Physiol. 81:153–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bustamente, J. O., and Mc Donald, T. F. 1983. Sodium currents in segments of human heart cells. Science 220:320–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamil, O. P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B., and Sigworth, F. J. 1981. Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pfluegers Arch. 391:85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cachelin, A. B., De Peyer, J. E., Kokubun, S., and Reuter, H. 1983. Sodium channels in cultured cardiac cells. J. Physiol. 340:389–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Severs, N. J., Slade, A. M., Powell, T., Twist, V. W., and Warren, R. L. 1982. Correlation of ultrastructure and function in calcium-tolerant myocytes isolated from the adult rat heart. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 81:222–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee, K. S., Hume, J. R., Giles, W., and Brown, A. M. 1981. Sodium current depression by lidocaine in isolated ventricular cells. Nature (London) 291:325–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sanchez-Chapula, J., Tsuda, Y., and Josephson, I. R. 1983. Voltage- and use-dependent effects of lidocaine on sodium current in rat single ventricular cells. Circ. Res. 52:557–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Attwell, D., Cohen, I., Eisner, D., Ohba, M., and Ojeda, C. 1979. The steady state Ttxsensitive (“window”) sodium current in cardiac Purkinje fibres. Pflüegers Arch. 379:137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Richie, M. J., and Rogart, R. D. 1977. The binding of saxitonin and tetrodotoxin to excitable tissues. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 79:1–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ulbricht, W. 1981. Kinetics of drug action and equilibrium results at the node of Ranvier. Physiol. Rev. 61:785–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baer, M., Best, P. M., and Reuter, H. 1976. Voltage-dependent action of tetrodotoxin in mammalian cardiac muscle. Nature (London) 263:344–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen, C. J., Bean, B. P., Colatsky, T. J., and Tsien, R. W. 1981. Tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels in rabbit Purkinje fibers. J. Gen. Physiol. 78:383–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.University Laboratory of PhysiologyOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations