Evolution, Cardiac Failure, and Water Metabolism
In this essay, I take the liberty of doubting the widely held view that congestive cardiac failure is due to an inability of the heart to provide enough oxygen for the needs of the body. Instead, the syndrome is best explained by an inappropriate and prolonged stimulation of the neurohumoral defense reaction that developed during evolution to support exercise and preserve life.
KeywordsCardiac Output Cardiac Failure Total Body Water Congestive Cardiac Failure Nitrogenous Waste
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