Evolution, Cardiac Failure, and Water Metabolism
In this essay, I take the liberty of doubting the widely held view that congestive cardiac failure is due to an inability of the heart to provide enough oxygen for the needs of the body. Instead, the syndrome is best explained by an inappropriate and prolonged stimulation of the neurohumoral defense reaction that developed during evolution to support exercise and preserve life.
KeywordsCombustion Migration Filtration Convection Urea
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Altman, P. L., and Dittmer, D. S. 1973. Biological Handbooks: Respiration and Circulation. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
- 3.Braunwald, E. 1983. The definition of heart failure. Eur. HeartJ. 4:446–447.Google Scholar
- 4.Dejours, P. 1975. Principles of Comparative Respiratory Physiology. North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- 5.Ganong, W. F. 1981. Neuroendocrine responses to injury and shock. Adv. Physiol. Sci. 26:35–44.Google Scholar
- 9.Milledge, J. S., Bryson, E. I., Catley, D. M., Hesp, R., Luff, N., Minty, B. D., Older, M. W. J., Payne, N. N., Ward, N. P., and Withey, W. R. 1982. Sodium balance, fluid homeostasis and the renin-aldosterone system during the prolonged exercise of hill walking. Clin. Sci. 62:595–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Schmidt-Nielsen, B. M., and Mackay, W. C. 1980. Comparative physiology of electrolyte regulation. In: M. H. Maxwell and C. R. Kleeman (eds.), Clinical Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism, pp. 37–88, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
- 11.Smith, H. W. 1951. The Kidney. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- 12.Wade, O. L., and Bishop, J. M. 1962. Cardiac Output and Regional Blood Flow. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar