Advertisement

Biological Timing: Circadian Oscillations, Cell Division, and Pulsatile Secretion

  • Felix Strumwasser
Part of the Brain Dynamics book series (BD)

Abstract

The term “rhythms” in biology refers to a wide range of phenomena that have one feature in common, the process or variable of interest oscillates with time. There are numerous examples of biological processes that oscillate, some in a sustained fashion and some with damping. Common examples of such biological processes are the heart beat, respiration, and the sleep-waking cycle, processes readily monitored without invasive or sophisticated procedures. Heart beat and respiration, as well as flagellar rotation in bacteria, are in the middle range of biological oscillations (arbitrarily rates of ≈ 0.1 to 300 Hz). Sleep-waking and annual cycles (migration, hibernation) are in the low to very low frequency range (10-5 to 10-8 Hz). There are some biological processes that are driven by external stimuli that operate at very high frequencies (> 104 Hz), such as the membrane ion currents due to the resonance of stereocilia on hair cells in the inner ear, and these are probably the highest biological frequencies that cells, as intact structures, can generate. The wide range of such biological oscillations, some 12 orders of magnitude, suggests that very different mechanisms must be at work to cover such a range.

Keywords

Cell Division Cycle Circadian System Circadian Oscillation Circadian Cycle Circadian Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balzer I, Neuhaus-Steinmetz U, Hardeland R (1989): Temperature compensation in an ultradian rhythm of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in Euglena gracilis Klebs. Experientia 45 : 476–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett RK, Page TL (1989): Effects of light on circadian pacemaker development. I. The freerunning period. J Comp Physiol A 165 :41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brabant G, Prank K, Ranft U, Schuermeyer T, Wagner TO, Hauser H, Kummer B, Feistner H, Hesch RD, von zur Muhlen A (1990): Physiological regulation of circadian and pulsatile thyrotropin secretion in normal man and woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70 : 403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunlap JC (1990): Closely watched clocks: Molecular analysis of circadian rhythms in Neurospora and Drosophila. TIG 6 : 159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fleissner G, Fleissner G (1988): Efferent Control of Visual Sensitivity in Arthropod Eyes: With Emphasis on Circadian Rhythms. Stuttgart: Gustav FischerGoogle Scholar
  6. Fuchs JL, Moore RY (1980): Development of circadian rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the rat suparachiasmatic nucleus: a study using the 2-deoxy [1 – 1 4C] — glucose method. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77 :1204–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gautier J, Matsukawa T, Nurse P, Maller J (1989): Dephosphorylation and activation of Xenopus p34cdc2 protein kinase during the cell cycle. Nature 339 : 626–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerisch G (1987): Cyclic AMP and other signals controlling cell development and differentiation in Dictyostelium. Annu Rev Biochem 56 : 853–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giebultowicz JM, Riemann JG, Raina AK, Ridgway RL (1989): Circadian system controlling release of sperm in the insect testes. Science 245 : 1098–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldbeter A (1988): Periodic signaling as an optimal mode of intercellular communication. NIPS 3 : 103–105Google Scholar
  11. Hall JC, Kiriacou CP (1990): Genetics of biological rhythms in Drosophila. In: Advances in Insect Physiology, Evans PD, Wigglesworth VB, eds. New York: Academic Press, pp 221–298Google Scholar
  12. Ho KY, Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, Furlanetto R, Evans WS, Alberti KGMM, Thorner MO (1988): Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man. J Clin Invest 81: 968–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hunter WM, Rigal WM (1966): The diurnal pattern of plasma growth hormone concentration in children and adults. J. Endocrinol 34 : 147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Isaksson OGP, Jansson J-O, Clark RG, Robinson I (1986): Significance of the secretory pattern of growth hormone. NIPS 1: 44–47Google Scholar
  15. Johnson C (1990): An Atlas of phase response curves for Circadian and Circatidal Rhythms. Vanderbilt University: Dept. of BiologyGoogle Scholar
  16. Knobil E (1987): A hypothalamic pulse generator governs mammalian reproduction. NIPS 2 : 42–43Google Scholar
  17. Leng G (1988): Pulsatility in Neuroendocrine Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  18. Loros JJ, Denome SA, Dunlap JC (1989): Molecular cloning of genes under the control of the circadian clock in Neurospora. Science 243 : 385–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McMahon DG, Block GD (1987): The Bulla ocular circadian pacemaker I. Pacemaker neuron membrane potential controls phase through a calcium-dependent mechanism. J Comp Physiol A 161 : 335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Minshull J, Blow JJ, Hunt T (1989): Translation of cyclin mRNA is necessary for extracts of activated Xenopus eggs to enter mitosis. Cell 56:947–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Minshull J, Golsteyn R, Hill CS, Hunt T (1990): The A- and B-type cyclin associatedcdc2 kinases in Xenopus turn on and off at different times in the cell cycle. EMBO J 9:2865–2875Google Scholar
  22. Morse DS, Fritz L, Hastings JW (1990): What is the clock? Translational regulation of circadian bioluminescence. TIBS 15 : 262–265Google Scholar
  23. Murray AW, Kirschner MW (1989): Dominoes and clocks: The union of two views of the cell cycle. Science 246 : 614–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pittendrigh CS (1954): On temperature independence in the clock system controlling emergence time in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 40:1018–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prosser RA, McArthur AJ, Gillette MU (1989): cGMP induces phase shifts of a mammalian circadian pacemaker at night, in antiphase to cAMP effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 6812–6815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raju U, Yeung SJ, Eskin A (1990): Involvement of proteins in light resetting ocular circadian oscillator of Aplysia. Am J Physiol 258 : R256—R262Google Scholar
  27. Ralph MR, Foster RG, Davis FC, Menaker M (1990): Transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus determines circadian period. Science 247 : 975–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strumwasser F (1967): Neurophysiological aspects of rhythms. In: The Neurosciences: An Intensive Study Program, Quarton GC, Melnechuk T, Schmitt FO, New York: Rockefeller University Press, pp 516–528Google Scholar
  29. Strumwasser F (1989): A short history of the second messenger concept in neurons and lessons from long lasting changes in two neuronal systems producing afterdischarge and circadian oscillations. J Physiol (Paris) 83 : 246–254Google Scholar
  30. Yeung SJ, Eskin A (1987): Involvement of a specific protein in the regulation of a circadian rhythm in Aplysia eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84 : 279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zerr DM, Hall JC, Rosbash M, Siwicki KK (1990): Circadian fluctuations of period protein immunoreactivity in the CNS and visual system of Drosophila. J Neurosci 10 : 2749–2762Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Strumwasser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations