Advertisement

A Comparison of Certain Gamma Band (40-HZ) Brain Rhythms in Cat and Man

  • Robert Galambos
Part of the Brain Dynamics book series (BD)

Abstract

I still recall my astonishment when I learned that if you open your eyes the electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha waves will disappear, and that if then you close them the alpha waves will reappear. The year was 1934, and I have been hoping ever since to learn what causes the 10-Hz rhythm in the first place, and then what brain process turns it off and on. The editors of this book have asked me to compare another human brain rhythm—in the region of 40 Hz this time—with a cat rhythm in the same frequency range that is discussed elsewhere in this volume by Gray and Singer and their colleagues, and by Eckhorn and his colleagues. I do as much as I can to oblige them in what follows, first describing some properties of the human 40-Hz phenomena, then comparing these with the microelectrode data from the cat. After concluding that the two differ in several ways, I branch out to consider the general problem of brain rhythms briefly, and to speculate on their possible physiological origins and functions.

Keywords

Gamma Band Stimulus Rate Alpha Wave Brain Rhythm Gamma Band Oscillation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartel P, Blom M, Robinson E, Vander Meyden C, Sommers DeK, Becker P (1990): Effects of chlorpromazine on pattern and flash ERGs and VEPs compared to oxazepam and to placebo in normal subjects Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77:330–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Başar E (1980): EEG—Brain Dynamics. New York: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  3. Başar E, Başar-Eroglu C, Roschke J, Schutt A (1989): The EEG is a quasi-deterministic signal anticipating sensory-cognitive tasks. In: Brain Dynamics: Progress and Perspectives, Başar E, Bullock TH, eds. Berlin: Springer, pp 43–71Google Scholar
  4. Başar-Eroglu C, Başar E (1991): A compound P300–40 Hz response of the cat hippocampus. Int J Neurosci 60 : 227–237Google Scholar
  5. Brazier MAB (1960): Long-persisting electrical traces in the brain of man and their possible relationship to higher nervous activity. In: The Moscow Colloquium on Electroencephalography of Higher Nervous Activity, Jasper HH, Smirnov GD, eds. The EEG Journal, Montreal, pp 347–358Google Scholar
  6. Bressler SL, (1990): The gamma wave: a cortical information carrier? Trends Neurosci 13:161–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown DD, Shallop JK (1982): A clinically useful 500 Hz evoked response. Nicolet Potentials 1: 9–12Google Scholar
  8. Bullock TH, Hofmann MF, Nahm FK, New JG, Prechtl JC (1990): Event-related potentials in the retina and optic tectum of fish. J Neurophysiol 64: 903–914Google Scholar
  9. Cracco RQ, and Cracco JB (1978): Visual evoked potential in man: early oscillatory potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dowling JE (1987): The Retina. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckhorn R, Bauer R, Jordan W, Brosch M, Kruse W, Munk M, Reitboeok HJ (1988): Coherent oscillations: a mechanism of feature linking in the visual cortex? Biol Cybern 60(2):121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eckhorn R, Reitboeok HJ, Dicke P, Arndt M, Kruse W (1990): Feature linking across cortical maps via synchronization. In: Proceedings International Conference on Parallel Processing in Neural Systems and Computers, Eckmiller R, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  13. Engel AK, Konig P, Gray CM, Singer W (1990): Stimulus-dependent neuronal oscillations in cat visual cortex: Inter-columnar interaction as determined by crosscorrelation analysis. Eur J Neurosci 2: 558–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Galambos R, Makeig S (1988): Dynamic changes in steady-state potentials. In: D ynamics of Sensory and Cognitive Processing of the Brain, Başar E, ed. Berlin: Springer, pp 102–122Google Scholar
  15. Galambos R, Makeig, S, Talmachoff P (1981): A 40 Hz auditory potential recorded from the human scalp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 78(4): 2643–2647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jerger JF, Chmiel R, Frost JD, Coker N (1986): Effect of sleep on the auditory steady state evoked potential. Ear Hear 7(4) : 240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kankkunen A, Rosenhall U (1985): Comparison between thresholds obtained with pure-tone audiometry and the 40-Hz middle latency response. Scand Audiol, 14 : 99–04CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kergoat H, Lovasik JV (1990): The effects of altered vascular perfusion pressure on the white flash scotopic ERG and oscillatory potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 76 : 306–322Google Scholar
  19. Linden RD, Campbell KB, Hamel G, Picton T (1985): Human auditory steady state evoked potentials during sleep. Ear Hear 6 : 167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Makeig S (1990): A dramatic increase m the auditory middle latency response at very slow rates. In: Psychological Brain Research, Brunia CM, Gaillard AK, Kok A, eds. Tillburg, the Netherlands: Tilburg University Press, pp 56–60Google Scholar
  21. Makeig S, Galambos R (1989a): The CERP: event-related perturbations in steadystate responses. In: Brain Dynamics: Progress and Perspectives, Başar E, Bullock TH, eds. Berlin: Spinger, pp 375–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Makeig S, Galambos R (1989b): The auditory 40 Hz-band evoked response lasts 150 ms and increases in size at slow rates. Soc Neurosci Abst 15 :113Google Scholar
  23. Picton TW, Vajsar J, Rodriguez R, Campbell KB (1987): Reliability estimates for steady-state evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rees A, Green GGR, Kay RH (1986): Steady-state evoked responses to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sounds recorded in man. Hear Res 23 : 123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Regan D (1968): A high frequency mechanism which underlies visual evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 25:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Regan D (1989): Human Brain Electrophysiology. New York: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  27. Rohrbaugh JW, Varner JL, Paige SR, Eckhart MJ, Ellingson RJ (1990): Auditory and visual event-related perturbations in the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 76 : 148–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stapells DR, Galambos R, Costello JA, Makeig S (1988): Inconsistency of auditory middle latency and steady-state responses in infants. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 71: 289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stapells DR, Linden RD, Suffield JB, Hamel C, Picton TW, (1984): Human auditory steady state potentials. Ear Hear 5(2) :105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stapells DR, Makeig S, Galambos R (1987): Auditory steady-state responses: threshold predictions using phase coherence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 67: 260–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thornton C, Catley DM, Jordan C, Lehane JR, Royston D, Jones JG (1983): Enflurane anaesthesia causes graded changes in the brainstem and early cortical auditory evoked response in man. Br J Anaesth 55 : 479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Whittaker SG, Siegfried JB (1983): Origin of wavelets in the visual evoked potential. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 55: 91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Galambos

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations