Advertisement

The Geology of Svalbard, the Western Part of the Barents Sea, and the Continental Margin of Scandinavia

  • K. Birkenmajer

Abstract

The Svalbard Archipelago is located on the northwestern corner of the Barents Shelf (Fig. 1). Its position at the upturned edge of the Eurasian continental plate, opposite the Greenland continental block, and its long geological record, with evidence of major Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Cenozoic deformation, offer a potential for intercontinental correlation. Investigations of Svalbard have provided evidence of a long history of vertical and horizontal movement. These data supplemented with knowledge of the topography and structure of the neighboring sea floor helps us to reconstruct the evolution of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean Basins.

Keywords

Continental Margin Lower Cambrian Lower Devonian Main Basin Continental Rise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åm, K., 1975a, Magnetic profiling over Svalbard and surrounding shelf areas, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1973, p. 87–99.Google Scholar
  2. Åm, K., 1975b, Aeromagnetic basement complex mapping north of latitude 64°N, Norway, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., v. 29(316), p. 351–374.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, D. J., 1962, Tectonic control of sedimentation and the interpretation of sediment alternation in the Tertiary of Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., v. 73, p. 343–364.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, D. J., 1963, Tertiary rocks of Spitsbergen, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., v. 47, p. 302–323.Google Scholar
  5. Atlasov, I. P., and Dibner, V. D., eds., 1964, Tektonicheskaya karta Arktiki i Subarktiki (1:5,000,000), Leningrad: Nauch. Issled. Inst. Geol. Arktiki.Google Scholar
  6. Avery, O. E., Burton, G. D., and Heirtzler, J. D., 1968, An aeromagnetic survey of the Norwegian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., v. 73, p. 4583–4600.Google Scholar
  7. Backlund, H., 1907, Les diabases du Spitzberg oriental. Miss. Sci. pour la méridien au Spitzberg, 1899–1901 Mission Russe, Uppsala Univ. Geol. Inst. Bull., v. 2 (9B), p. 1–29.Google Scholar
  8. Barbaroux, L., 1966, Contribution à l’étude tectonique de la Presqu’ile de BrOgger (Spitsbergen), Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr., v. 8, p. 560–566.Google Scholar
  9. Barbaroux, L., 1967, Etude géologique et sédimentologique de la Presqui’Ile de Brçgger, Baie du Roi, Vestspitsbergen,Thèse, Fac. Sci. Univ. d’Aix, Marseille, Pts. I (185 pp.) & II (Annexe).Google Scholar
  10. Barbaroux, L., 1968, Superposition des styles tectoniques et virgation forcée au Vestspitsbergen (79° lat. Nord), C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, v. 266, p. 871–874.Google Scholar
  11. Beckinsale, R. D., Brooks, C. K. and Rex, D. C., 1970, K-Ar ages for the Tertiary of East Greenland, Medd. Dansk Geol. For., v. 20 (1), p. 27–37.Google Scholar
  12. Birkelund, T., Perch-Nielsen, K., Bridgewater, D., and Higgins, A. K., 1974, An outline of the geology of the Atlantic coast of Greenland, in: The Ocean Basins and Margins, v. 2, Nairn, A. E. M., and Stehli, F. G., eds., New York: Plenum Press, p. 125–159.Google Scholar
  13. Birkenmajer, K., 1958, Preliminary report on the stratigraphy of the Hecla Hoek Formation in Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Vestspitsbergen, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Sér. Sci. Chim. Géol. Géogr., v. 6 (2), p. 143–150.Google Scholar
  14. Birkenmajer, K., 1959, Report on the geological investigations of the Hornsund area, Vestspitsbergen, in 1958. I. The Hecla Hoek Formation, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Sér. Sci. Chim. Géol. Géogr., v. 7 (2), p. 129–136.Google Scholar
  15. Birkenmajer, K., 1960a, Relation of the Cambrian to the Precambrian in Hornsund, Vestspitsbergen, 21st Int. Geol. Congr., Norden Copenhagen, 1960, Pt. 8, 64–74.Google Scholar
  16. Birkenmajer, K., 1960b, Geological sketch of the Hornsund area (supplement to the guide for Excursion A 16, “Aspects of the Geology of Svalbard”), 21st Int. Geol. Congr., Norden, Copenhagen, 1960, 12 p.Google Scholar
  17. Birkenmajer, K., 1960c, Raised marine features of the Hornsund area, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 5, 95 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Birkenmajer, K., 1964, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian formations of Hornsund, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 11, p. 47–123.Google Scholar
  19. Birkenmajer, K., 1972a, Tertiary history of Spitsbergen and continental drift, Acta Geol. Pol., v. 22 (2), p. 193–213.Google Scholar
  20. Birkenmajer, K., 1972b, Alpine fold belt of Spitsbergen, 24th Int. Geol. Congr., Montreal, 1972, Sec. 3, p. 282–292.Google Scholar
  21. Birkenmajer, K., 1972c, Cross-bedding and stromatolites in the Precambrian Höferpynten Dolomite Formation of SOrkapp Land, Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1970, p. 128–145.Google Scholar
  22. Birkenmajer, K., 1972d, Report on investigations of Tertiary sediments at Kap Brewster, Scoresby Sund, East Greenland, Rapp. Groenl. Geol. Unders., no. 48, p. 85–91.Google Scholar
  23. Birkenmajer, K., 1975a, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary formations of SW Torell Land, Spitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 44, p. 7–44.Google Scholar
  24. Birkenmajer, K., 1975b, Caledonides of Svalbard and plate tectonics, Bull. Geol. Soc. Den., v. 24, p. 1–19.Google Scholar
  25. Birkenmajer, K., 1977, Triassic sedimentary formations of the Hornsund area, Spitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 51, p. 1–74.Google Scholar
  26. Birkenmajer, K., and Morawski, T., 1960, Dolerite intrusions of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 4, p. 103–123.Google Scholar
  27. Birkenmajer, K., and Narebski, W., 1960, Precambrian amphibolite complex and granitization phenomena in Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 4, p. 37–82.Google Scholar
  28. Birkenmajer, K., and Narebski, W., 1963, Dolerite drift blocks in marine Tertiary of SOrkapp Land, and some remarks on the geology of the eastern part of that area, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1962, p. 68–79.Google Scholar
  29. Birkenmajer, K., and Olsson, I. U.,. 1971, Radiocarbon dating of raised marine terraces at Hornsund, Spitsbergen, and the problem of land uplift, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1969, p. 17–43.Google Scholar
  30. Birkenmajer, K., and Pugaczewska, H., 1975, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous marine fauna of SW Torell Land, Spitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 44, p. 45–88.Google Scholar
  31. Birkenmajer, K., and Wojciechowski, J., 1964, On the age of ore-bearing veins of the Hornsund area, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol., Pol., v. 11, p. 179–184.Google Scholar
  32. Birkenmajer, K., Fedorowski, J., and Smulikowski, W., 1971, Igneous and fossiliferous sedimentary drift pebbles in marine Tertiary of Torell Land, Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1970, p. 146–164.Google Scholar
  33. Björlykke, K., and Elverhoi, A., 1975, Reworking of Mesozoic clayey material in the Northwestern part of the Barents Sea, Mar. Geol., v. 18, p. M29 - M34.Google Scholar
  34. Blake, W., Jr., 1961, Radiocarbon dating of raised beaches in Nordaustlandet, Spitsbergen, in: Geology of the Arctic, Raasch, G. O., ed., Toronto: Toronto University Press, p. 133–145.Google Scholar
  35. Buchan, S. H., Challinor, A., Harland, W. B., and Parker, J. R., 1965, The Triassic stratigraphy of Svalbard, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 135, 93 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Bugge, T., LOfaldli, M., Maisey, G., Rokoengen, K., Skaar, F. E., and Thusu, B., 1975, Geological investigation of a Lower Tertiary/Quaternary core, offshore TrOndelag, Norway, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., 29 (316), p. 253–269.Google Scholar
  37. Bullard, E., Everett, J. E., and Smith, A. G., 1965, The fit of the continents around the Atlantic, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, v. 258, p. 41–51.Google Scholar
  38. Challinor, A., 1967, The structure of BrOggerhalvOya, Vestspitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 104 (4), p. 322–336.Google Scholar
  39. Corbel, J., 1965, Soulèvement isostatique et englacement ancien (Spitzberg et Mer de Barentz) in: Vorträge des Fridtjof-Nansen-Gedächtnis-Symposions über Spitzbergen, Büdel, J., and Wirthmann, A., eds., Wiesbaden: F. Steiner Verlag, p. 59–67.Google Scholar
  40. Cutbill, J. L., and Challinor, A., 1965, Revision of the stratigraphical scheme for the Carboniferous and Permian of Spitsbergen and BjOrnoya, Geol. Mag., v. 102 (5), p. 418–439.Google Scholar
  41. Dalland, A., 1975, The Mesozoic rocks of AndOya, northern Norway, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., 29 (316), p. 271–287.Google Scholar
  42. Dawes, P. R., 1971, The North Greenland fold belt and environs, Bull. Geol. Soc. Den., 20, p. 197–239.Google Scholar
  43. Dietz, R. S., and Shumway, G., 1961, Arctic Basin geomorphology, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 1310–1330.Google Scholar
  44. Dibner, V. D., 1962, Stratigrafija melovykh otlozhenij ostrovov Barencovo-Karskogo shelfa i gornogo Tajmyra, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 144 (5), p. 1113–1114.Google Scholar
  45. Dibner, V. D., Razin, V. K., and Ronkina, Z. Z., 1962, Litologia i uslovija formirovanija mezozojskikh otlozhenij Zemli Franca-Josifa, Tr. Inst. Geol. Arktiki, 126, p. 44–74.Google Scholar
  46. Dineley, D. L., 1958, A review of the Carboniferous and Permian rocks of the west coast of Vestspitsbergen, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 38 (2), p. 197–219.Google Scholar
  47. Edwards, M. V., 1975, Gravel fraction on the Spitsbergen Bank, NW Barents Shelf, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., 29 (316), p. 205–217.Google Scholar
  48. Efremova, E. S., 1972, Goterivskie ammonity ostrova Shpicbergen, in: Mezozojskie otlozhenija Svalbarda, Sokolov, V. N., and Vasilevskaja, N. D., eds., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 90–99.Google Scholar
  49. Eldholm, 0., 1970, Seismic refraction measurement on the Norwegian continental shelf between 62° and 65°N, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., 50 (3), p. 215–229.Google Scholar
  50. Feyling-Hanssen, R. W., 1965a, Shoreline displacement in central Spitsbergen, in: Vorträge des Fridtjof-Nansen-Gedächtnis-Symposions über Spitzbergen, Büdel, J., and Wirthmann, A., eds., Wiesbaden: F. Steiner Verlag, p. 24–28.Google Scholar
  51. Feyling-Hanssen, R. W., 1965b, A marine section from the Holocene of Talavera on Barents¢ya in Spitsbergen with a record of the Foraminifera, in: Vorträge des Fridtjof-Nansen-GedächtnisSymposions über Spitzbergen, Blidel, J., and Wirthmann, A., eds., Wiesbaden: F. Steiner Verlag, p. 30–58.Google Scholar
  52. Feyling-Hanssen, R. W., and Olsson, I. U., 1959–1960, Five radiocarbon dates of post-glacial shorelines in central Spitsbergen, Nor. Geogr. Tidsskr.,v. 17(1–4), p. 122–131.Google Scholar
  53. Flood, B., Gee, D. G., Hjelle, A., Siggerud, T. and Winsnes, T. S., 1969, The geology of Nordaustlandet, north and central parts, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 146.Google Scholar
  54. Flood, B., Nagy, J., and Winsnes, T. S., 1971a, Geological map of Svalbard, Sheet 1G, Spitsbergen, southern part, Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt.Google Scholar
  55. Flood, B., Nagy, J., and Winsnes, T. S., 1971b, The Triassic succession of Barentska, Edge$ya, and Hopen (Svalbard), Nor. Polarinst. Medd., no. 100, p. 1–20.Google Scholar
  56. Forbes, C. L., Harland, W. B., and Hughes, N. F., 1958, Paleontological evidence for the age of the Carboniferous and Permian rocks of central Vestspitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 95 (6), p. 465–490.Google Scholar
  57. Fortey, R. A., 1974, The Ordovician trilobites of Spitsbergen. I. Olenidae, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 160, 81 p.Google Scholar
  58. Fortey, R. A., 1975, The Ordovician trilobites of Spitsbergen. II. Asaphidae, Nileidae, Raphiophoridae, and Telephinidae of the Valhallfonna Formation, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 162, 125Google Scholar
  59. Fortey, R. A., and Bruton, D. L., 1973, Cambro-Ordovician rocks adjacent to Hinlopenstretet, north Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., v. 84, p. 2227–2242.Google Scholar
  60. Frebold, H., 1929, Untersuchungen über die Fauna, die Stratigraphie und Paläogeographie der Trias Spitzbergens, Skr. Svalb. Ishavet, no. 26, 66 p.Google Scholar
  61. Frebold, H., 1930, Verbreitung und Ausbildung des Mesozoikums in Spitzbergen, Skr. Svalb. Ishavet, no. 31, 126 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Frebold, H., 1951, Geologie des Barentsschelfes, Abh. Dtsch. Akad. Wiss. Berl. Kl. Math. Naturwiss., v. 5, p. 1–51.Google Scholar
  63. Friend, P. F., 1961, The Devonian stratigraphy of north and central Spitsbergen, Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc., v. 33 (I), n. 5, p. 77–118.Google Scholar
  64. Friend, P. F., 1967, Tectonic implications of sedimentation in Spitsbergen and midland Scotland, International Symposium on the Devonian System, Calgary, 1967, v. 2, Oswald, D. H., ed., p. 1141–1147.Google Scholar
  65. Friend, P. F., and Moody-Stuart, M., 1972, Sedimentation of the Wood Bay Formation (Devonian) of Spitsbergen: Regional analysis of a late orogenic basin, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 157.Google Scholar
  66. Friend, P. F., Heintz, N., and Moody-Stuart, M., 1966, New unit terms for the Devonian of Spitsbergen and a new stratigraphical scheme for the Wood Bay Formation, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1965, p. 59–64.Google Scholar
  67. Gakkel, Ya. Ya., and Dibner, V. D., 1967, Bottom of the Arctic Ocean, in: International Dictionary of Geophysics, New York: Pergamon Press, p. 1–13.Google Scholar
  68. Gayer, R. A., and Wallis, R. H., 1966, The petrology of the Harkerbreen Group of the Lower Hecla Hoek of Ny Friesland and Olav V Land, Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 140.Google Scholar
  69. Gayer, R. A., Gee, D. G., Harland, W. B., Miller, J. A., Spall, H. R., Wallis, R. H., and Winsnes, T. S., 1966, Radiometric age determinations on rocks from Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 137, 39 p.Google Scholar
  70. Gee, D. G., 1966, A note on the occurrence of ecologites in Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1964, p. 240–241.Google Scholar
  71. Gee, D. G., 1972, Late Caledonian (Haakonian) movements in northern Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1970, p. 92–101.Google Scholar
  72. Gee, D. G., and Hjelle, A., 1966, On the crystalline rocks of northwest Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1964, p. 31–45.Google Scholar
  73. Gee, D. G., and Moody-Stuart, M., 1966, The base of the Old Red Standstone in central north Haakon VII Land, Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1964, p. 57–68.Google Scholar
  74. Gee, E. R., Harland, W. B., and McWhae, J. R. H., 1952, Geology of central Vestspitsbergen. Pt. I. Review of geology of Spitsbergen, with special reference to Vestspitsbergen. Pt. II. Carboniferous to Lower Permian of Billefjorden, Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh, v. 62 (9), p. 299–356.Google Scholar
  75. Gjelsvik, T., 1963, Remarks on the structure and composition of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Bockfjorden, Vestspitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1962, p. 50–54.Google Scholar
  76. Gobbett, D. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1960, The Oslobreen Series, Upper Hecla Hoek of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 97, p. 441–457.Google Scholar
  77. Grosswald, M. G., Devirts, A. L., Dobkina, E. L., and Semevskiy, D. V., 1967, Crustal movements and dating of glacial stages in the Spitsbergen region (translated from Geokhimiya, no. 1, p. 51–56, 1967), Geochem. Int., v. 4 (1), p. 30–35.Google Scholar
  78. Grnlie, G., and Ramberg, I. B., 1971, Gravity indications of deep sedimentary basins below the Norwegian Continental Shelf and the V¢ring Plateau, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 50, p. 375–391Google Scholar
  79. Haller, J., 1971, Geology of the East Greenland Caledonides, New York: Interscience Publishers, 413 p.Google Scholar
  80. Harland, W. B., 1959, The Caledonian sequence in Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, v. 114, p. 307–342.Google Scholar
  81. Harland, W. B., 1960, The development of Hecla Hoek rocks in Spitsbergen, 21st Int. Geol. Congr. Norden, 1960, pt. 19, p. 7–16.Google Scholar
  82. Harland, W. B., 1961, An outline structural history of Spitsbergen, in: Geology of the Arctic, v. I, Raasch, G. O., ed., Toronto: Toronto University Press, p. 68–132.Google Scholar
  83. Harland, W. B., 1965, The tectonic evolution of the Arctic-North Atlantic region, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, v. 258, p. 59–75.Google Scholar
  84. Harland, W. B., 1966, A hypothesis of continental drift tested against the history of Greenland and Spitsbergen, Cambridge Res., no. 2, p. 18–22.Google Scholar
  85. Harland, W. B., 1967, Early history of the North Atlantic Ocean and its margins, Nature (London), 216, p. 464–467.Google Scholar
  86. Harland, W. B., 1969, Contribution of Spitsbergen to understanding of tectonic evolution of North Atlantic region, in: North Atlantic-Geology and Continental Drift, Kay, M., ed., Mem. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 12. p. 817–851.Google Scholar
  87. Harland, W. B., 1971, Tectonic transpression in Caledonian Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., 108 (1), p. 27–42.Google Scholar
  88. Harland, W. B., 1972, Early Paleozoic faults as margins of Arctic plates in Svalbard, 24th Int. Geol. Congr., Montreal, v. 3, p. 230–237.Google Scholar
  89. Harland, W. B., 1973a, Tectonic evolution of the Barents Shelf and related plates, in: Arctic Geology, Pitcher, M. G., ed., Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., v. 19, p. 599–608.Google Scholar
  90. Harland, W. B., 1973b, Mesozoic geology of Svalbard, in: Arctic Geology, Pitcher, M. G., ed., Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., v. 19, p. 135–148.Google Scholar
  91. Harland, W. B., 1975, Paleogene correlation in and around Svalbard, Geol. Mag., v. 112 (4), p. 421–429.Google Scholar
  92. Harland, W. B., and Gayer, R. A., 1972, The Arctic Caledonides and earlier oceans, Geol. Mag., 109 (4), p. 289–384.Google Scholar
  93. Harland, W. B., and Horsfield, W. T., 1974, West Spitsbergen orogen, in: Mesozoic-Cenozoic Orogenic Belts; Data for Orogenic Studies, Spencer, A. M., ed., Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Lond., no. 4, p. 747–755.Google Scholar
  94. Harland, W. B., and Wilson, C. B., 1956, The Hecla Hoek succession in Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., 93, p. 265–286.Google Scholar
  95. Harland, W. B., Cutbill, J. L. Friend, P. F., Gobbett, D. J., Holliday, D. W., Maton, P. I., Parker, J. R., and Wallis, R. H., 1974, The Billefjorden Fault Zone, Spitsbergen-the long history of a major tectonic lineament, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 161, 72 p.Google Scholar
  96. Harland, W. B., Wallis, R. H., and Gayer, R. A., 1966, A revision of the Lower Hecla Hoek Succession in central north Spitsbergen and correlation elsewhere, Geol. Mag., v. 103 (1), p. 70–97.Google Scholar
  97. Hjelle, A., 1969, Stratigraphical correlation of Hecla Hoek Succession north and south of Bellsund, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1967, p. 46–51.Google Scholar
  98. Hoel, A., and Holtedahl, 0., 1911, Les nappes de lave, les volcans et les sources thermales dans les environs de la Baie Wood au Spitzbergen, Vid. Selsk. Skr. (Kristiania) Mat. Naturvid., v. 1 (8), p. 1–38.Google Scholar
  99. Holtedahl, H., and Bjerkli, K., 1975, Pleistocene and recent sediments of the Norwegian continental shelf (62°N-71°N) and the Norwegian Channel area, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., v. 29 (316), p. 241–252.Google Scholar
  100. Holtedahl, 0., 1919, On the Paleozoic series of Bear Island, especially on the Heclahook system, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 5, p. 121–148.Google Scholar
  101. Holtedahl, 0., 1937, On fault lines indicated by the submarine relief in the shelf area west of Spitsbergen, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 6, p. 214–221.Google Scholar
  102. Holtedahl, O., 1960, On supposed marginal faults and the oblique uplift of the land mass in Cenozoic time, in: Geology of Norway, Holtedahl, O., ed., Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., no. 208, p. 351–357.Google Scholar
  103. Horn, G., and Orvin, A. K., 1928, Geology of Bear Island, with special reference to the coal deposits, and with an account of the history of the island, Skr. Svalb. lshavet, no. 15, 152 p.Google Scholar
  104. Horsfield, W. T., and Maton, P. I., 1970, Transform faulting along the De Geer Line, Nature (London), v. 226, p. 256–257.Google Scholar
  105. Hyvärinen, H., 1969, Trullvatnet: A Flandrian stratigraphical site near Murchisonfjorden, Nordaustlandet, Spitsbergen, Geogr. Ann. (Stockholm) A, v. 51 (1–2), p. 42–45.Google Scholar
  106. Johnson, G. L., 1975, The morphology and structure of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, Thesis, University of Copenhagen, 157 p., 95 figs.Google Scholar
  107. Johnson, G. L., and Eckhoff, O. B., 1966, Bathymetry of the North Greenland Sea, Deep Sea Res., v. 13, p. 1161–1173.Google Scholar
  108. Johnson, G. L., and Heezen, B. C., 1967, The morphology and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, Deep Sea Res., v. 14, p. 755–771.Google Scholar
  109. Johnson, G. L., Ballard, J. A., and Watson, J. A., 1968, Seismic studies of the Norwegian continental margin, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1966, p. 112–119.Google Scholar
  110. Johnson, G. L., Freitag, J. S., and Pew, J. A., 1970, Structure of the Norwegian Basin: Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1969, p. 7–16.Google Scholar
  111. Korchinskaja, M. B., 1972, Biostratigrafija triasovykh otlozhenij Svalbarda, in: Mezozojskie Otlozhenija Svalbarda, Sokolov, V. N., and Vasilevskja, N. D., eds., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 21–26.Google Scholar
  112. Krasilshchikov, A. A., 1965, Nekotorye osobennosti geologicheskogo razvitija severnoj chasti archipelaga Spitsbergena, in: Mater. Geol. Spitsb., Sokolov, V. N., ed., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 29–44.Google Scholar
  113. Krasilshchikov, A. A., 1973, Stratigrafija i paleotektonika dokembrija-rannogo paleozoja Shpitsbergena, Tr. Inst. Geol. Arktiki, v. 172.Google Scholar
  114. Krasilshchikov, A. A., and Livshic, Ju. Ja., 1974, Tektonika ostrova Medvezhij, Akad. Nauk SSSR Geotektonika, no. 4, p. 39–51.Google Scholar
  115. Krasilshchikov, A. A., Golovanov, N. P., and Milshtejn, V. E., 1965, K stratigrafii verchneproterozojskikh otlozhenij rajona Murchison-fjorda (Severo-vostochnaja Zemlja), in: Mater. Geol. Spitsb., Sokolov, V. N., ed., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 102–110.Google Scholar
  116. Kulling, O., 1934, The “Hecla Hoek Formation” round Hinloopenstredet, Geogr. Ann. (Stockholm), v. 16, p. 161–254.Google Scholar
  117. Kvale, A., 1975, Caledonides in Scandinavia compared with East Greenland, Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, v. 24, p. 129–160.Google Scholar
  118. Laughton, A. S., 1975, Tectonic evolution of the northeast Atlantic Ocean; a review, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., v. 29 (316), p. 169–193.Google Scholar
  119. Livsic (Livshic), Ju. Ja., 1967, Tretichnye otlozhenija zapadnoj chasti archipelaga Shpicbergen, in: Mat. Strat. Shpicbergena, Sokolov, V. N., ed., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 185–204.Google Scholar
  120. Livsic (Livshic), Ju. Ja., 1973, Paleogenovye otlozhenija i platformennaja struktura Shpicbergena, Tr. Inst. Geol. Arktiki, v. 174, 159 p.Google Scholar
  121. Livsic (Livshic), Ju. Ja., 1974, Paleogene deposits and the platform structure of Svalbard, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 159, 51 p.Google Scholar
  122. Lowell, J. D., 1972, Spitsbergen Tertiary orogenic belt and the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 83, p. 3091–3102.Google Scholar
  123. Major, H., 1964, Geological Map of Svalbard C9G, Adventdalen, 1:100,000 (printed 1964, published in Major and Nagy, 1972 ), Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt.Google Scholar
  124. Major, H., and Nagy, J., 1972, Geology of the Adventdalen map area, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 138, 58 p., 1 map.Google Scholar
  125. Major, H., and Winsnes, T. S., 1955, Cambrian and Ordovician fossils from Sörkapp Land, Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 106.Google Scholar
  126. Manum, S., 1960, Some dinoflagellates and hystrichospherids from the Lower Tertiary of Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Medd., no. 85 (reprinted from Nytt Mag. Bot., 8, p. 17–26 )Google Scholar
  127. Manum, S., 1962, Studies in the Tertiary flora of Spitsbergen, with notes on Tertiary Floras of Ellesmere Island, Greenland, and Iceland, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 125, 127 p.Google Scholar
  128. Manum, S., 1966, Deposits of probable Upper Cretaceous age offshore from Andöya, Northern Norway, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr.,. 46 (2), p. 246–247.Google Scholar
  129. Nagy, J., 1970, Ammonite faunas and stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous (Albian) rocks in southern Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Skr., no. 152.Google Scholar
  130. Nathorst, A. G., 1910, Beiträge zur Geologie der Bären-Insel, Spitzbergens und des König-KarlLandes, Uppsala Univ. Geol. Inst. Bull., 10, p. 261–416.Google Scholar
  131. Nicholson, R., 1974, The Scandinavian Caledonides, in: The Ocean Basins and Margins, v. 2Google Scholar
  132. Nairn, A. E. M., and Stehli, F. G., eds., New York: Plenum Press, p. 161–203.Google Scholar
  133. Oftedahl, C., 1972, A sideritic ironstone of Jurassic age in Beitstadfjorden, Trondelag, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 52, p. 123–134.Google Scholar
  134. Orvig, T., 1960, The Jurassic and Cretaceous of Andyiya in Northern Norway, in: Geology of Norway, Holtedahl, O., ed., Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., no. 208, p. 344–350.Google Scholar
  135. Orvin, A. K., 1934, Geology of the Kings Bay region, Spitsbergen Skr. Svalb. Ishavet, no. 57, 196 p.Google Scholar
  136. Orvin, A. K., 1940, Outline of the geological history of Spitsbergen Skr. Svalb. Ishavet, no. 78.Google Scholar
  137. Os Vigran, J., 1970, Fragments of Middle Jurassic flora from northern Tr0ndelag, Norway, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., v. 50 (3), p. 193–214.Google Scholar
  138. Parker, J. R., 1966, Folding, faulting, and dolente intrusions in the Mesozoic rocks of the fault zone of central Spitsbergen, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1964, p. 47–55.Google Scholar
  139. Parker, J. R., 1967, The Jurassic and Cretaceous sequence in Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 104 (5), p. 487–505.Google Scholar
  140. Pchelina, T. M., 1965, Stratigrafija i osobennosti veshchestvennogo sostava mezozojskikh otlozhenij centralnoj chasti zapadnogo Shpicbergena, in: Mater. Geol. Shpicbergena, Sokolov, V. N., ed., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 127–148.Google Scholar
  141. Pchelina, T. M., 1967, Stratigrafija i nekotorye osobennosti veshchestvennogo sostava mezozojskikh otlozhenij juzhnykh i vostochnykh rajonov Zapadnogo Shpicbergena, in: Mater. Geol. Shpicbergena, Sokolov, V. N., ed., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 121–158.Google Scholar
  142. Pitman, W. C., III, and Talwani, M., 1972, Sea-floor spreading in the North Atlantic, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 83 (3), p. 619–646.Google Scholar
  143. Playford, G., 1962–1963, Lower Carboniferous of Spitsbergen, pts. 1 and 2, Palaeontology,v. 5(3–4), p. 550–678.Google Scholar
  144. Ravn, J. P. J., 1922, On the Mollusca of the Tertiary of Spitsbergen, Result. Nor. Spitsbergeneksped., v. 1 (2), p. 1–28.Google Scholar
  145. Ronnevik, H., Bergsager, E. I., Moe, A., Ovrebo, O., Narvestad, T., and Stangenes, J., 1975, The geology of the Norwegian continental shelf, in: Petroleum and the Continental Shelf of Northwest Europe, v. I: Geology, Woodland, A. W., ed., London: Applied Scientific Publications, p. 117–129.Google Scholar
  146. Rosenkrantz, A., 1942, Das geologische Auftreten der Gattung Thyasira, Dan. Geol. For. Medd., v. 10, p. 277–278.Google Scholar
  147. Rozycki, S. Z., 1959, Geology of the north-western part of Torell Land, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 2, 96 p.Google Scholar
  148. Sandal, S. T., and Halvorsen, E., 1973, Late Mesozoic paleomagnetism from Spitsbergen; implications for continental drift in the Artic, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., v. 7, p. 125–132Google Scholar
  149. Sandford, K. S., 1950, Observations on the geology of the northern part of North-East Land (Spitsbergen), Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, v. 105, p. 461–493.Google Scholar
  150. Sandford, K. S., 1956, The stratigraphy and structure of the Hecla Hoek Formation and its relationship to a subjacent metamorphic complex in North-East Land (Spitsbergen), Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, v. 112, p. 339–362.Google Scholar
  151. Sandford, K. S., 1963, Exposures of Hecla Hoek and younger rocks on the north side of Wahlenbergfjorden, Nordaustlandet (Svalbard), Nor. Polarinst. Arbok, 1962, p. 7–23.Google Scholar
  152. Schytt, V., Hoppe, G., Blake, W., and Grosswald, M. G., 1967, The extent of the Würm Glaciation in the European Arctic. A preliminary report about the Stockholm University Svalbard Expedition 1966, Medd. Naturgeogr. Inst. Stockholms Univ. (Int. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., Gen. Assoc. of Bern, 1967, Extr. Publ., 79), v. 20A, p. 207–216.Google Scholar
  153. Sellevoll, M. A., 1975, Seismic refraction measurements and continuous seismic profiling on the continental margin off Norway between 62°N and 69°N, Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., v. 29 (316), p. 219–235.Google Scholar
  154. Siedlecka, A., 1975, Late Precambrian stratigraphy and structure of the north-eastern margin of the Fennoscandian Shield (East Finnmark-Timan region), Nor. Geol. Unders. Publ., v. 29 (316), p. 313–348.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, D. G., Harland, W. B., and Hughes, N. F., 1975, Geology of Hopen, Svalbard, Geol. Mag., v. 112 (1), p. 1–23.Google Scholar
  156. Smulikowski, W., 1965, Petrology and some structural data of lowest metamorphic formations of the Hecla Hoek Succession in Hornsund, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 18, 107 p.Google Scholar
  157. Smulikowski, W., 1968, Some petrological and structural observations in the Hecla Hoek Succession between Werenskioldbreen and Torellbreen, Vestspitsbergen, Stud. Geol. Pol., v. 21, p. 97–161.Google Scholar
  158. Sokolov, D., and Bodylevsky, V., 1931, Jura-und Kreidefaunen von Spitzbergen, Skr. Svalb. Ishavet, no. 35, 151 p.Google Scholar
  159. Sokolov, V. N., Krasiltshikov, A. A., and Livschitz, J. J., 1968, The main features of the tectonic structure of Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 105 (2), p. 95–115.Google Scholar
  160. Storetvedt, K. M., 1972, Old Red Sandstone paleomagnetism of central Spitsbergen and the Upper Devonian (Svalbardian) phase of deformation, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1970, p. 59–69.Google Scholar
  161. Storetvedt, K. M., 1974, A possible large-scale sinistral displacement along the Great Glen Fault in Scotland, Geol. Mag., v. 111, p. 23–30.Google Scholar
  162. Strand, T., and Kulling, O., 1972, Scandinavian Caledonides, Pt. I, The Norwegian Caledonides, New York: Wiley-Interscience, p. 1–145.Google Scholar
  163. Sundvor, E., 1975, Thickness and distribution of sedimentary rocks in the southern Barents Sea, Nor. Geol. Underst. Publ., v. 29 (316), p. 237–240.Google Scholar
  164. Talwani, M., and Eldholm, O., 1972, Continental margin off Norway: A geophysical study, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 83, p. 3575–3606.Google Scholar
  165. Tozer, E. T., and Parker, J. R., 1968, Notes on Triassic biostratigraphy of Svalbard, Geol. Mag., v. 105 (6), p. 526–542.Google Scholar
  166. Tyrrell, G. W., and Sandford, K. S., 1933, Geology and petrology of the dolerites of Spitsbergen, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, v. 53 (21), p. 284–321.Google Scholar
  167. Valiance, G., and Fortey, R., 1968, An Ordovician succession in North Spitsbergen, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, no. 1648, p. 91–97.Google Scholar
  168. Vasilevskaja, N. D., 1972, Pozdnetriasovaja flora Svalbarda, in: Mezozojskie Otlozhenija Sval-barda, Sokolov, V. N., and Vasilevkaja, N. D., eds., Leningrad: Inst. Geol. Arktiki, p. 27–63.Google Scholar
  169. Vogt, P. R., and Avery, O. E., 1974, Tectonic history of the Artic Basins: Partial solutions and unre-solved mysteries, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas, Herman, Y., ed., Berlin: Springer Verlag, p. 83–117.Google Scholar
  170. Vogt, P. R., Ostenso, N. A., Johnson, G. L., 1970, Magnetic and bathymetric data bearing on sea-floor spreading north of Iceland, J. Geophys. Res., 75, p. 903–920.Google Scholar
  171. Vogt, T., 1928, Den norske fjellkjedes revolusjons-historie, Nor. Geol. Tidsskr., 10, p. 97–115.Google Scholar
  172. Vonderbank, K., 1970, Geologie und Fauna der Tertiären Ablagerungen Zentral-Spitzbergens, Nor. Polarinst. Skr. no. 151, 119 p.Google Scholar
  173. Werenskiold, W., 1922, Höyie strandlinjer paa Spitsbergen, Norsk Geol. Tidsskr., 7, p. 7–12.Google Scholar
  174. Wilson, C. B., 1958, The lower Middle Hecla Hoek rocks of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., 95, p. 305–327.Google Scholar
  175. Wilson, C. B., 1961, The upper Middle Hecla Hoek rocks of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., 98, p. 89–116.Google Scholar
  176. Wilson, C. B., and Harland, W. B., 1964, The Polarisbreen Series and other evidences of late Pre-Cambrian ice ages in Spitsbergen, Geol. Mag., v. 101, p. 198–219.Google Scholar
  177. Wilson, J. T., 1965, A new class of faults and their bearing on continental drift, Nature (London), v. 207, p. 343–347.Google Scholar
  178. Winsnes, T. S., 1965, The Precambrian of Spitsbergan and Bjornoya, in: The Geologic Systems, v. 2, The Precambrian, Rankama, K., ed., New York: Wiley-Interscience Publishers, p. 1–24Google Scholar
  179. Worsley, D. L., 1973, The Wilhelmøya Formation—a new lithostratigraphic unit from the Mesozoic of eastern Svalbard, Nor. Polarinst. Arbok 1971, p. 7–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Birkenmajer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of GeologyPolish Academy of SciencesCracowPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Historical Geology and PaleontologyCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations