Construction surveying operations comprise approximately 60% of all surveying work being performed and should be considered a definite specialty of the modern surveyor. Three basic objectives of construction surveying are: (1) providing layout stakes, located both horizontally and vertically, that construction personnel can utilize in an accurate and efficient manner to position structures or earthwork projects; (2) ongoing replacement of layout stakes as a project progresses toward completion, along with periodic checking of projects to ensure compliance with design dimensions; and (3) providing a map at the completion of a project, showing the final project location and configuration, incorporating any changes or modifications in project design—an “as-built” map.
KeywordsGuide Line Side Slope Vertical Alignment Anchor Bolt Horizontal Alignment
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