Field Astronomy for Azimuth Determinations

  • Richard L. Elgin
  • David R. Knowles
  • Joseph H. Senne

Abstract

Surveying has been defined as the science of determining positions of points on the earth’s surface. The four components of surveying measurements are: (1) vertical (elevations), (2) horizontal (distances), (3) relative direction (angles), and (4) absolute direction (azimuths). Due to recent developments in technology, the accuracy and efficiency of measuring these first three components have increased dramatically. This has resulted in accurate determination of the size and shape of figures. Unfortunately, determination of the orientation of figures, the fourth component, has not kept pace, even though inexpensive technology and equipment exist, such as precise timepieces, portable time signal receivers, ephemerides, programmable calculators and computers. The purpose of this chapter is to provide sufficient theory, calculations, and field procedures so surveys can be accurately oriented without significant increases in time and expense.

Keywords

Mercury Expense Eter Sine Refraction 

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References

  1. Buckner, R. B. 1984. A manual on astronomic and grid azimuth. Sacramento: Landmark.Google Scholar
  2. Elgin, R. L., D. R. Knowles, and J. H. Senne. 1985. 1986 celestial observation handbook and ephemeris. Overland Park: Lietz.Google Scholar
  3. J. B. Mackie. 1978. The elements of astronomy for surveyors. 8th ed. London: Charles Griffin.Google Scholar
  4. Mueller, I. I. 1969. Spherical and practical astronomy as applied to geodesy. New York: Frederick Ungar.Google Scholar
  5. Nassau, J. J. 1948. Practical astronomy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Elgin
  • David R. Knowles
  • Joseph H. Senne

There are no affiliations available

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